Saturday 30 April 2022

Lupine Publishers | Considerations of Acupuncture Protocol for Treating Heart Blood Deficiency-Patterned Heart Diseases

 Lupine Publishers | Journal of Complementary & Alternative Medicine


Most patients are not aware of the heart disease for years until a “sudden and fatal” heart attack resulted from coronary artery disease. Yin-Yang balance, the foundation and the guideline to explain that etiology of diseases that are understood as a loss of balance between Yin and Yang, which is the unique concept distinguishing TCM from Western medicine. ST36 and LV3 representing Qi and Blood are the essential acupoints to achieve the goal of Yin-Yang balance for Blood deficiency-patterned heart diseases.

Keywords: Yin-Yang; Qi and Blood; Blood deficiency; Ischemic heart disease


The most common and easiest access of protein and fat humans consume is meat protein. It has been confirmed that protein plays a key role in the formation of atherosclerosis, a leading cause of death closely associated with increasing risk of heart disease [1,2]. Lipoprotein (a), for example, is a lipoprotein whose plasma concentration contributes to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and has been believed to be a risk factor for CVD in adults, independent of age, diet, physical activity, smoking history, ethanol consumption, and gender [3]. The coronary arteries bring blood and oxygen to the heart. Most of the patients with coronary artery disease are not aware of the heart disease for years until a “sudden and fatal” heart attack. Most of the symptoms and signs of coronary artery disease are often noted in the advanced state of disease as the disease progresses “silently” before the first onset of symptoms. Coronary artery disease (CAD) also known as atherosclerotic heart disease, coronary heart disease, or ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the most common type of heart disease that can cause heart attacks. In addition to symptoms of stable ischemic heart disease that include angina (chest pain) and decreased exercise tolerance. The risk of artery narrowing increases with age, smoking, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Moreover, this artery issue is more common in men and those who have close relatives with CAD [3]. Quality of life of the senior can be extremely impaired by unexplained repetitively occurring Blood deficiencypatterned heart disease. In TCM, the head and the upper thorax (上 焦, upper Jiao) are associated with the Heart. Heart plays a central role that any disorder affecting the Heart will also affect other organs, and vice versa. Cardiovascular disorders and organ-related specific symptoms attributed to the Heart are loss of memory, insomnia and psychosomatic problems

Glance at Qi and Blood in TCM

Yin-Yang balance, which distinguishes TCM from Western medicine, is the unique concept and one of the key principles of traditional Chinese medicine. The concept also serves as the foundation and the guideline for explaining etiology of diseases that are understood as a loss of balance between Yin and Yang as shown in Figure 1 [4]. Blood (血, Xue), classified into Yin and derived mainly from gu qi (榖氣, food qi) of the food produced by the Spleen, is considered to be the nourishing agent in respect of TCM. The other source that generates Blood is Kidney since it stores Jing (精, essence) that can produce marrow. Marrow then generates bone marrow contributing to manufacturing Blood. On the other hand, Qi (氣), viewed as Yang and the moving agent to maintain the circulation in body, interacts with Blood [4]. Overall, the circulation of Qi and Blood in the body should be constant, or the pain shall occur when the “free flow” of Qi and Blood is disrupted [5]. In other words, the relationship between Qi and Blood can be interpreted to be inter-promoting, inter-dependent, and inter-transforming.

Figure 1: Characteristics of Yin-Yang.


The functions of Blood include moistening and nourishing the skin, muscles, sinews, bones and internal organs. The concept that Qi is “the commander of Blood” and Blood is “the mother of Qi” in TCM highlights Blood nourishes Qi and Qi moves Blood and suggests one is inconceivable without the other [6]. The circulation of Qi and Blood depends on the correct, inter-dependent functioning of Zang- Fu organs, involving in Lung, Heart, Liver, Spleen, Kidney, and San Jiao. One thing in common among three Zangs, Liver, Spleen, and Kidney, is closely connected with Blood as shown in Table 1. In the pathological perspective, the disease is caused by plaque building up along the inner walls of the arteries of the heart, which narrows the arteries down and reduces blood flow to the heart. These symptoms are viewed from the perspective of TCM as the patterns of Qi stagnation and Blood stasis, which are related to Liver. In the meantime, plaque is viewed as the phlegm derived from Dampness with the invasion of LV qi to Spleen.

Table 1: Functions of Zang organs related to Blood.


Table 2: Signs of Blood deficiency.


The Liver qi ensures Qi to circulate consistently and smoothly in all parts of the body, regulating and connecting to Spleen and promoting the digestion functions to produce and hold Blood. External factors like Wind and Heat, emotional disturbance, bad diet, physical trauma, and improper exertion in activities, such as sex or excessive study and thinking result in the imbalance of Qi and Blood [4]. Pain is mainly a presentation of disturbances in the circulation of Qi and Blood, indicating the stagnation of Qi and stasis of Blood, or Qi deficiency and Blood deficiency. The organ that causes these is Heart because Heart dominates Blood and blood vessels, and is the root controller of Zang-Fu organs [5]. However, Liver and Spleen play the important roles that cannot be ignored in TCM when the etiology is Blood deficiency with the following signs in Table 2.

Angina is the common symptom in patients with coronary disease. There could be various causative factors leading to pain, but the main pathology is either due to blockage and obstruction resulted from Qi stagnation or deficiency of Blood. Malfunction and dysfunction of rotting and ripening of Stomach, which controls digestion, and transforming and transporting of Spleen, which produces and holds Blood, occur when these two organs are invaded by the stagnated Liver qi. The quality of Plasma concentration, which contributes to the risk of cardiovascular disease when the level rises, is to a certain extent interpreted in the perspective of TCM as phlegm in this study. In the Five Elements theory, phlegm results from Spleen qi deficiency when Liver qi invades Spleen. Blood deficiency results actually from hypofunction in Blood production, excessive Blood consumption of Essence and Blood with prolonged illness or over-exhaustion. The palpitations occur when Blood supply to the Heart is insufficient, including volume or flow of Blood.

Considerations of Protocol

An experienced TCM practitioner or acupuncturists can only use four skills for diagnosis to identify Patterns and finally give prescriptions, compared to Western medicine physicians who mostly rely on scientific instruments. Patterns, which distinguish TCM from the Western medicine, should be the key concern rather than diseases for TCM and acupuncture practitioners in treatment. In the Bible of TCM, Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic (Huang Di Nei Jing), it is stated that both Qi and Blood deficiency and Qi deficiency occur at 49 in females, and at 56 in males in the volume of Essential Questions. In other words, this notion reminds healthcare providers that Blood deficiency and Qi deficiency can be seen commonly in the senior people. Impeded Qi results in static Blood and finally leads to Blood deficiency. For better results, Blood mobilization and Qi regulation need treatment at the same time. On the other hand, it deserves attention that Blood deficiency may be seen as the source of dampness when it is closely linked to Spleen qi deficiency.

The most critical notion that “Feng (風, Wind), the beginner of the illness.” discussed in Huang Di Nei Jing attracts attention because Wind is considered to be the major cause of illness with its pernicious influence. It also explains that Blood Xu (血虛, Blood deficiency) generates Wind inside the body, which is the cause of stroke and refers to pain, spasm and hypotension. Choosing Shustream to treat Zang organs; He-sea to treat Fu organs.” has been the best principle for prescriptions presented in the volume of Sù Wèn (素問, Essential Questions) of Huang Di Nei Jing. For the purpose of Qi-Blood balance, LV 3 (太沖, Taichong) and ST 36 (足三里, Zusanli) are essential acupoints in the protocol as shown in Figure 2. Clinical experiences show it is beyond doubt that these two acupoints in the protocol function well to the expectations. ST36 is located on the Foot Yangming meridian, which is Yang, and LV3 is on Foot Jueyin meridian that belongs to Yin. On the other hand, these two acupoints are classified as Earth in the Five-Element, indicating they can nourish Spleen qi and Stomach qi to expel phlegm out of the body with the free flow of LV qi [7]. The symptoms and signs of Heart-Blood deficiency may include palpitations, insomnia, mild anxiety, poor memory, dizziness, and dull-pale complexion. HT 7 (神門, Shenmen) is added for insomnia, dizziness, and dull-pale complexion with the function to tonify Blood to Heart.

Figure 2: Characteristics of LV3 and ST36.



Acupuncture protocols cannot obtain therapeutic effects and good results without accurate pattern identification based on Y-n-Yang balance in treating functional heat problems as well as difficulty caused by disorders of the autonomic nervous system. The beginning stages of coronary heart disease without any advanced narrowing coronary arteries are well suited for acupuncture interventions. However, good results cannot be expected if key symptoms are not identified following TCM theories.

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Friday 29 April 2022

Lupine Publishers | Forage Production Potential of Maize - Cowpea Intercropping in Maichew - Southern Tigray, Ethiopia

 Lupine Publishers | Journal of Food and Nutrition


Needless to mention the ever increasing pressure on cultivated land for food & commercial crops, diminishing the area for forage production. RCBD five treatments with three replications experiment compared maize grown as sole crop with maizecowpea intercropped to assess agronomic, nutritional and economic returns of forage production. Average plant performance ranged 122.85-174.19cm maize plant height; 20.7-26.4cm ear length, & number of leaves/maize plant was 9.13-10.52. The effect of intercropping treatments on maize forage yield was significant (P<.05), however, there was no significant difference in grain yield among the cropping systems though T5 yielded higher and higher 100 maize grains weight followed by T4 yield and 21.74g average 100 maize grain weight; T3 (3.05ton/ha) and 21.84g average 100 maize seeds and the least in yield was actually the sole maize T2 (2.24ton/ha), confirming that intercropping has at least, some scenario better than sole cropping practices. There was no significant soil NPK effect pre-sowing and postharvest.

Nutritionally, feed quality of maize parts was significant difference among the intercropping systems that stated in their descending value of cowpea hay, as follows: NDF (T3>T1>T5>T4); ADF (T1>T5>T3>T4) and typical in CP. lignin content (T1>T5>T4>T3), while IVDMD% (T3>T4>T5>T1). NDF content was significantly higher in maize stem and least in grain. Maize husk significantly over dominated in ADF content than stem, leaf and grain in descending order. ADF content was great significant in the entire parts that maize husk has higher than stem which exceeds leaf. Grain was the least in ADF content of all maize parts. Similarly, maize stem was significantly higher in lignin than husk, leaf and grain. LER was 1.45 in the mixtures indicating yield advantage over sole crops. T4 has the potential for enhancing cowpea and maize performances. Favourable seasons for better DM yield and chemical composition of both crops should be researched.

Keywords: Maichew, Forage, Maize-Cowpea Intercropping, Yield, Chemical composition

Abbrevations: BCR: Benefit Cost Ratio, MAI: Monetary Advantage Index


Background and Justification

Farming systems in most Africa is under serious threat due to increasing population growth and environmental degradation. The difficulty has highlighted the need to take an overall view of land management that is not limited only to livestock & crop production systems but also includes the need to conserve natural resources. Currently, arable farming is expanding at the expense of traditional grazing land. This is putting pressure on grazing resources resulting inadequate feed resource for livestock both in terms of quality and quantity [1]. Belete [2] also reported that production increases resulted from expanding cultivated area not from increasing yield, despite the fact that the land frontier, especially in the highlands, has shrunk. Under these situations, development of integrated forage-cereal-livestock systems offers method of accommodating & improving crop - livestock production systems [3]. Although farmers often appreciate the need for fertilizer inputs, the demand isn’t effective due to high prices, insecure supplies, and in some cases because farmers have a high aversion to the risks associated with food production in marginal agroclimatic &socioeconomic conditions. Fertilizer prices at farm gate are also excessively high due to thin markets, lack of domestic production capacity, poorly developed infrastructure, and inefficient production systems [4].

Statement of the Problem

90% of animal feed supply is expected from natural range. This however, is available in marshy areas, rift-valleys, mountain scarves which are also diminished from time to time because of overstocking, overgrazing, and frequent droughts. Due to ever increasing pressure on cultivated land for food and commercial crops, it may not be possible to increase the area for forage production [5]. Integration gap in livestock-crop interactions created problems facing forage development in Ethiopia acting bottleneck to livestock productivity [6]. Growing of forage legumes intercropping enables to use the small farm land for both crop and feed production. The system offers a potential for increasing fodder without appreciable reduction of grain production.

Objectives of the Study

1. To evaluate effect of maize and cowpea mixtures on the agronomic practice,

2. To determine impact of intercropping on nutritional content of the crop parts, and

3. To assess forage production potential of maize and cowpea intercropping on economic returns

Materials and Methods

Description of the Study Area

The research was conducted in Maichew ATVET farm land, from July 20- December 30, 2011, located at 12°47’ N latitude 39°32’ E longitude, 2450m.a.s.l. It has 600-800mm rainfall, 12- 24oC temperature, and 80% relative humidity. The hottest months are April-June with average 22.92°C; whereas the coldest months are November- January with 12.47°C on average. The district is situated about 120km south of Mekelle city, North of Ethiopia. In the highland mixed crop livestock farming system, maize, and wheat, normal barley, 6 row barley (“Abiy-ekli”), Teff, pulses such as dekoko, chickpea, vetch, beans and peas are the main cash crops in the zone. Despite the mountainous terrain which limits availability of cultivable land, the combination of fertile soils, adequate rainfall and suitable temperatures produce good yields which make this zone food sufficient comparatively.

Experimental Design and Treatments

Five treatments (two monocultures and three mixtures of maize & cowpea) were included in the experiment with a proportion; 1C:1M for T4, 1C:2M for T5 and 2C:1M for T3 and sole crops of cowpea (T1) and maize (T2) included as check to compare yields of intercropped mixtures. The experimental design was RCBD with three replications. The treatments included seed proportions as follows 144:0 (100% cowpea), 0:144 (100% maize), 96:48 (67% cowpea: 37% maize), 72:72 (50% cowpea: 50% maize) and 48:96 (33% cowpea: 67% maize). The land was ploughed and ridged then divided into 15 plots (3.6m x5.4m= 19.44m2 each) and 1m plot spacing, in 18.2m *22m= 400.4m2 leveled total area. Frost damaged the cowpea forage on 26th December 2011 night that Maichew meteorological station recorded -10c, after 10% pod formation and early blooming. Based on the indigenous knowledge practices of the surroundings, the research maize (Katumani/Beletech) termed “Arkib or Fetino” for its fast growing yellowish small sized deemed as reliable in the late on set and early cessation rainfall pattern and Cowpea, the multipurpose legume was supposed to minimize the cost of production for fertilizer under nitrogen-limiting conditions and under water-limiting conditions, so that the requirements for maintenance of high intercrop maize yields can be defined.

Sampling Procedure, Data Collection, and Analysis

Soil sample collected diagonally from the middle 3 rows of the plot for both pre-sowing (surface level during bed preparation) and post harvest (from roots of the crops). Laboratory analysis for soil and plant NPK was conducted using wet chemistry technique while DM and Fiber contents using NIRS. Dry oven used to determine plant DM% and other chemical analysis in 65oC for 24 hours and to analyze soil NPKs in 105oC for 24 hours. Fresh matter yield was estimated from harvesting herbage from 3.6m x5.4m quadrant in the central rows of each plot. The dried composite forage and grain samples from each treatment were milled to pass via a 1mm sieve for targeted analysis. Maize and cowpea forages as well as maize grain quality were determined in terms of percentage: - NPKs, CP, Ash, DM, ADF, NDF, ADL, IVDMD and soil NPK analysis. Yields were assessed based on intercropping indices as measures ratio of individual LERs, Monetary Advantage Index (MAI) an indication of the economic values of grain and stover produced estimation, germination rate and time to reach blooming were considered for quantitative statistics. In each experiment, sowing was done by row method. All other cultural management practices including (watering, thinning and weeding) were kept normal and uniform for all the treatments.

The collected samples analyzed for DM, CP and ash according to the procedures and NDF, ADF and ADL determined according to the method of Van Soest, et al. [7]. For DM yield determination, two middle rows were harvested when the maize component reached dough stage and the harvested biomass was then be separated in to grass and legume components. The fresh weight recorded just after partitioning and the sub samples of each component species forced in dry oven at 65oC for 24 hours to determine the DM content. This percentage DM used to determine herbage yield on per hectare basis. Biological yield advantages and species compatibility of the intercropping were assessed using LER. If LER is greater than one, then intercropping has a yield advantage [8,9]. The chemical analysis of the feed samples was done using the standard methods AOAC. Nitrogen was analyzed using the Kjeldhal procedure and crude protein was determined by multiplying %N by the factor 6.25. NDF and ADF determined by the procedures described by Goering and Van Soest [7]. IVDMD was determined using Tilley and Terry in vitro technique. Soil and plant NPK was determined followed by maize and cowpea plant parts Near-infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. Samples were dried, ground and sieved (Adesogan 2000).

Statistical Data Analyses

Data analyzed by ANOVA, Correlation manipulated using basic statistics and LSM difference student’s t test of JMP 5 (2002). The statistical model was:- Yij=μ + Bi + Tj+ Eij,

Where, Yij=observation in block i and treatment j, μ=Overall sample mean, Bi=Effect of block j,

Ti= Effect of treatment i, Eij = Error.

Results and Discussion

Germination rate was more than 75% for both crops within a week time and maize started tasseling on 3rd month while cowpea begun blooming on the end of 4th month. In the study plot 400m2 there have been 713 cowpea and 955 maize plants that had 1780 maize ears (1.86 ears/maize plant) of which 937 ears (52.64%) had been fruitful bearing seeds and 5.73% out of the total maize, were also damaged by birds even though closely guarded during early mornings and late evenings. Damaged ears were covered using maize leaf or plastics. In both crops, sole cropping and higher ratio of respective seed outweigh the intercropping due to minimum inter-competition. In cowpea (Tables 1 & 2) forage yield T1 was highly significant (p<.05) than other cowpea intercropping systems which were likely to each other. T1 produced more DM% than in intercropping systems. T5 has the lowest cowpea DM, and shortest cowpea plant height, due to reduced cowpea growth. Cowpea DM production in sole cropping increased with increasing cowpea density and produced more DM compared to intercropped planting patterns. This indicated that competition for resources in intercropping reduced cowpea growth and also resulted in a decreased growth rates (Figure 1). The effect of forage integration treatments on maize forage yield was significant (P<.05), however, there was no significant difference in grain yield among the cropping systems though treatment 5 yielded higher (5.46 ton/ha) and higher 100 maize grains weight (24.98g), followed by treatment 4 (4.38 ton/ha) yield and 21.74g average 100 maize grain weight; treatment 3 (3.05 ton/ha) and 21.84g average 100 maize seeds and the least in yield was actually the sole maize treatment 2 (2.24 ton/ha).as indicated in (Tables 2 & 3).

Figure 1: Effect of intercropping on maize and cowpea performance

Table 1: Effect of forage intercropping on maize grain (ton/ha), stover (ton/ha) yields and cowpea forages yield (ton/ha).

Table 2: The average chemical composition (%) of maize stover and cowpea (dry matter basis)

There were no remarkable differences (P > 0.05) in maize plant height due to the intercropping, rather the maize sole crop outweighed, followed by reducing proportion of the cowpea. Maize leaf number/plant were 99.7% similar (p>0.05) among treatments that there was no use of variation in cropping system, however, T4 formed significantly higher leaf number from other treatments. Maize biomass was higher in the sole crop followed by T5 where the seed ratio outweighed others. T4 and T3 maize biomass was typical also (Figure 1). There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in maize ear length and grains/cob among the treatments. However, T4 were significantly higher from others, both in maize ear length and grains/cob, indicating that maize ear length determined number of grains/cob in maize plants (Table 2).

Similar to many studies, number of growing days in the highland (2450m.a.s.l) was supposed to reach in 3 months, but everything delayed to 5 months. The research result agreed with Samuel and Mesfin [10]; Diriba and Lemma [1], who reported that high biomass of maize in sole crop, compared to their respective intercrops has been obtained due to interspecific completion and rust damage of the maize. Maize yield reduction in intercropped compared to T2 could be due to a higher degree of interspecific competition in mixed stands and the absence of interspecific competition in the sole crops similar to the investigation [5]. Results from previous studies indicated that shade effects on growth and yield of legume crops decreased DM yield and increased plant height [10]. Thobatsi [9] has also reported that taller maize cultivars result in lower yield of intercropped cowpeas, compared to shorter cultivars due to the increased shading effects. Contrary to the studies of shade effect on the cowpea, the research enabled to determine maize nursing effect from frost damage on cowpea (Table 1).

The increase in DM% production of maize in intercropping compared T2 might be attributed to the fact that maize is a more aggressive component crop in the intercropped system. Similar results had been reported by numerous investigators [10] who found that DM production increased when maize is intercropped relative to sole maize. Cowpea DM production in sole cropping increased with increasing cowpea density and produced more DM compared to intercropped planting patterns. This indicated that competition for resources in intercropping reduced cowpea growth and also resulted in a decrease in growth rates. Legume growth suppression by maize in intercropping systems has been reported (Moririt et al. 2010). Maize-cowpea intercrops reduced density and weed biomass when compared to sole crops. This was similar with the findings of many researches [1].

In biomass, T2 dominated followed by T5 and T4, indicating interspecific competition scenarios in between maize and cowpea crops, which disagree with many investigators. However, maize seeds/cob directly linked with ear length that was shown in T4 similar to Moriri, et al. [11]. Mean grain yields for maize under intercropping were 51% less and for cowpea 12% less than in the respective sole crops Thorne et al. [12]. Furthermore, maize stover yield was 14% lower under intercropping, although the additional legume stover may more than compensate because of its higher nutritive value. T4 was the best combination of component crops in intercrop due to maize seeds per cob, ear length, cowpea plant height and biomass and fair shade and frost effects. This combination of component crops proved to increase crop growth rates of both crops in this study.

Sole cowpea was significantly populated than other intercropping. T3 and T4 were likely to each other, but value wise, T3 was more populated than T4, indicating that with increase cowpea rows, there was an increase in cowpea population, getting freedom to compete alone for access to water, nutrients and sun light. Practically there was great over dominance of maize in three of the T5 replications, that cowpea plants were out of competition. T4 was significantly different from T5, though insignificant (P > 0.05) from T3 and T1 which, were likely to each other in cowpea plant height. The same trend was also observed in cowpea nodule number per plant, where T1 was exceptionally different from T5.

There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in cowpea biomass among the intercropping systems, however, sole cowpea had scored significantly higher biomass followed by T4 with the least T3 (Figure 1). Cowpea plant root depth among the treatments were almost 81% similar between treatments (p>0.05) not significant but T4 was greatly significant (P > 0.05) than T5, T3 and T1 in descending order (Table 2). Intercropping had a consistent deleterious effect on cowpea performance, but any competitive effects were small. Cowpea plant height positively correlated with its biomass and number of cowpea plant/plot with nodule number, that indicated they do affect each other. But there was no correlation in between number of cowpea plants/plot with plant height and cowpea root depth. There was no correlation in between number of nodule with cowpea plant height, cowpea biomass and cowpea root depth.

Maize plants/plot was almost perfectly positively correlated with maize biomass (0.98) & maize ear number/ plant (0.96) that positively correlated with plant height but no correlation with ear length, grains/cob and grain weight. Maize leaf number was only positively correlated with plant height that indicated directly influenced to each other, no relation with ear length, grains/ cob, ear number/plant, grain weight and biomass. However, leaf number should be correlated with maize biomass, which correlated with plant height. Maize plant height also positively correlated with ear length, biomass and ear number/plant, but not correlated with grain weight and grains/cob indicating no influence. Maize biomass was also perfectly positively correlated with ear number/plant that directly affected. There was weak correlation in between biomass of maize & cowpea that there may not affect each other. Number of cowpea plants/ plot did not affected number of maize plants/ plot that do weakly correlated, but negatively affected maize grain weight. Nodules/ cowpea plant was negatively correlated with maize ear length which affected number maize grains/cob.

Thobatsi [9] reported that maize grain yield was significantly correlated to number of ears/plant and to 100 seeds weight. The planting pattern T5 has displayed lower cowpea plants performance in height and population that contradicts with Moriri, et al. [11] study who reported the 2rows M:4rows C pattern has the lowest cowpea dry matter, and taller cowpea plant height, all of these being attributed to reduce cowpea growth. In agreement with Moriri, et al. [11] study T4 pattern was the best combination of component crops in intercrop due to higher dry matter production. This combination of the component crops proved to increase crop growth rates of both crops in the study. Thorne, et al. [12] reported maize grain lower (0.5ton/ha) than the bench marked production of the study area (0.7 ton/ha) and the actual intercropped low input farming trial as reported in (Table 3).

Table 3: Effect of intercropping on the growth parameters of maize and cowpea crops.

Indicate for the control sole cowpea (T1) and T2 for sole maize and hence there will no data for the alternate crop.

a,b,c, letters connected by different alphabet were significant difference ( within the same row);

Ns = not significant; SEM = Standard error mean; 1 ton= 1000Kg; 1hectar =10000m2

Effects Intercropping on Plant Chemical Composition

The levels of DM, IVDMD, NDF and ADF were higher in maize than in cowpea. However, lignin, CP and ash were higher in cowpea than maize.The interaction impact significantly (P<.05) affected in cowpea forage composition in many of the criteria such as DM, Ash, NDF, ADF, lignin and IVDMD in different angles. There was significant difference among the intercropping systems that stated in their descending value, as follows: NDF% (T3>T1>T5>T4); ADF % (T1>T5>T3>T4) and typical in CP% as well as lignin content % (T1> T5>T4>T3), while IVDMD% (T3>T4>T5>T1). There was marked (P <.05) effect of intercropping in cowpea forage DM% that T5 was higher while T1 was the least.

Cowpea Ash content was also significant (P < 0.05), and that of T4 has higher value while T3 was the least. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in between maize leaf and husk as well as maize grain and stem in DM% content. However, Maize leaves were significantly higher while maize stem was the least of all. Ash content was significantly (P < 0.05) different with higher value in maize leaf and least in grain which was actually higher in CP% (P < 0.05; 9.86) than leaf (6.57), husk (4.40) and stem (3.64). Interaction significantly (P < 0.01) affected NDF content that maize stem was higher and the least in grain. Maize husk was significantly over dominant in ADF content than stem, leaf and grain with their descending order. There was great significant in ADF content in the entire maize parts that maize husk has higher ADF than stem which exceeds leaf. Grain was the least in ADF content of all the maize parts. In general, low NDF values are desired because NDF increases as forages mature. Similar to the general fact maize stem was significantly (p<.05, 7.87%) higher in lignin than husk (6.62%), leaf (4.13%) and grain (1.23%). There is significant difference in IVDMD% content from maize grain to leaf, husk and stem, that grain was better digestible and absorbed in body tissues. Grain was the least in ADF; husk was the highest, indicating that it is poor in digestibility

The chemical composition of the research forage was in the range of Ethiopian forage nutritive value as stated by Duncan [13]. In turn, cowpea also presented CP values similar to those found in the literature. Dahmardeh [14] reported that maximum ADF (31.85%) was recorded by sowing maize alone while increasing the proportion of cowpea seeds to 50% in intercropping with maize, resulted in the lowest ADF (25.89%). Intercropping of cereal and legume can improve forage quality in terms of Ash. There was no difference in Phosphorus and IVDMD composition in maize stover and in maize grain of DM and CP, from Duncan [13] findings, higher ADL (6.2%) than 3.98% (Table 4).

Table 4: Correlation of maize and cowpea plant parts along with their biomass.

*Correlation significant level; ns = not significant; ht= height; wt = weight; Cwpea = cowpea; Mgrains = Maize grains

Intercropping Effects on Soil Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Contents

The soil parameters did not vary significantly (p>0.05) across treatments pre-sowing and post harvest. However, it is worth noting that intercropped plots did not receive fertilizer, and yet available nitrogen and phosphorus content was not significantly different. However, there was slight difference that higher N2 and P available pre-sowing, this indicated that total yield per unit area was improved through intercropping without visible impact on soil nutrient status. Available nitrogen was markedly lower and differences were less evident at the final sampling, probably, due to the increased use of the nutrients by the improved growth of the crops. There was significant Potassium (K) variation (p<.05) presowing and post harvest ppm. The result in NPK ranged in medium as to recommendations. Available potassium in the soil post harvest was diminished and higher in the maize leaves and husks.

This coincided with Lindqvist [15] that intercropping means sowing forage seeds usually legumes in a field where other crops are already growing, that has an advantage of producing additional animal feed from land that is already used, improves the feeding value of the crop stubble and improves soil fertility. The research result coincided with Thorne, et al. [12] who stated as stover fraction of the maize plant contains fewer nutrients than the grain. However, the removal of stover as fodder, construction material or fuel still represents a significant additional outflow of nutrients from the plot.

Economic Return of the Forage

Intercropping has improved economic return that T5 (1C:2M) followed by treatment 4 (1C:1M) intercropping were better to perform than treatment 2 (sole maize) and treatment 3 (2C:1M) cropping, be it for minimum competition or to resist frost damage. Cowpea had been crop of the lowlands, but the research trial could be witness that it could be feasible not only for forage value but also for seed production. With this the mono-crop was the least in terms of 100 maize grain weight and grain yield, while treatment 5, 4 and 3 the real intercropping system intervention do better performed in their sequential order. Forage yield was the reverse that mono-crop (50.38 ton/ha) was significantly different followed by T5 (26.46 ton/ha), T4 (20.82 ton/ha) and lastly T3 (15.85 ton/ ha), indicating that higher proportion of maize outweigh, due to the nature of the crop to cover a large canopy area.

A partial budgeting model was applied for economic-evaluation of the biological data. Both crops forage yield and maize grain were valued at farm-gate prices (Table 5). Incremental benefit and incremental cost for each crop treatment was calculated. The resultant benefit cost ratio (BCR) was derived as the ratio of net incremental benefit to incremental cost. It is the absolute marginal rate of return (or loss, if negative) to incremental cost. BCR is the choice criterion for ranking the alternative maize-intercrops against respective control practices. A positive BCR implies that a particular crop treatment is economically superior (yields positive marginal return) to the control treatment or practice, and vice versa. The higher the positive BCR, the more economically superior the crop treatment and vis-a-vis. From a hectare of the planting pattern 257225.60 birr was considered as return (Table 5).

Table 5: Cost benefit analysis of the intercropping.

Biological Competition (Potential) Functions

SPI= (MS / CS x CI) + MI=MI= 3.39 ton/ha, where, CS x CI=0, since cowpea was perished. The Monetary Advantage Index (MAI) which gives an indication of the economic advantage of the intercropping system was calculated according to Ghosh [8] as follows:

MAI=257225.60(1.45-1)/1.45=79828.63 Ethiopian Birr

Figure 2: Comparative Land Equivalent Ratio results of the maize crop yield.

Economic values of grain and stover produced was estimated based on the average prevailing prices during the time period of the year from 3 main markets in the surroundings. Results indicated that the overall LER was 1.45 in the mixtures indicating a yield advantage over sole crops (Figure 2). Therefore, 45% more land should be used in sole cropping in order to obtain the same yield of intercropping, which indicates the superiority of the intercrops over pure stand in terms of the use of environmental resources for plant growth. LER > 1.0 has been reported in Eskandari [5], but LER<1 was reported in Thobatsi [9].

Conclusion and Recommendations

This study obviously suggested the possibility of exploiting short-term forage legume-cereal rotations where farmers could gain the benefits of forage legumes to grain production. If developed in to an intervention that can be implemented, such approach could be of an immense value to the animal and crop enterprises in mixed farming systems of highlands. In conclusion, it can be safely said that intercropping has shown its merit as a viable means of intensifying crop production, under unfertilized conditions and biotic (pests and diseases) and abiotic (frost) stresses, in the study area. The research disapproved that crop of the lowland; cowpea could perform well in highland, especially, with the global warming, increasing desertification and increasing temperature.

Maize and cowpea competed well with each other for light and nutrients in T4 mixed stand, producing a good total DM yield with moderate protein content. Cowpea deemed crop of the lowlands, but the research trial could be witness that it could be feasible not only for forage value but also for seed production. The research enabled to observe, frost damage versus intercropping that there was minimum impact on T4 of the intercropping for maize acted as nursing crop and provided protection against frost damage of the cowpea. Frost damage was more severe in the sole cowpea than the intercropped case. On the other hand, the establishment of climbing by this legume in relation to stage of maize development was vital in intercropping providing support [16].

Birds’ damage of the cob was higher in the sole maize for the denser population enabled to hide the birds. Frost cowpea damage was lesser in the T5 and T4 arrangements. The overall performance of the intercropping was better in the T4 arrangement which was the suitable planting pattern and has the potential to increase DM yield of maize production thereby also enhancing crop growth. In cowpea, sole cropping produced more DM than in intercropping systems [17-20]. From this study it was found that the T4 and T3 arrangements have the potential for enhancing cowpea and maize growth and also reducing weed growth this combination of the component crops proved to increase crop growth rates of both crops. Maize treatment 4 indicated to have better in CP% than other planting patterns [21].

1. Inorganic fertilizer seemed to be an indispensable component to maximize yield output, from interventions like intercropping

2. For highest yields, plant the targeted maize in 75 cm rows apart with in-row spacing of 30cm,

3. Favourable seasons for better grain and forage yields of both crops as well as chemical composition during scarcity of green feeds should be researched.

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Thursday 28 April 2022

Lupine Publishers | Cancer and Advantages of Immunosuppression

 Lupine Publishers | Journal of Oncology

Abbrevations: NK: Natural Killer; GVHD: Graft-vs-Host Disease; CRS: Cytokine Release Syndrome


As oncologists learn to target the immune response to “self and non-self,” a delicate therapy balance will eventually be achieved with predictable outcomes, benefits, and toxicity in the fightThe study of how the immune system recognizes friend and foe, or as the immunologist Sir Macfarlane Burnet phrased it, “distinguishes between self and non-self,” has driven important discoveries that are transforming our ability to treat cancer.

Over the last few clinicians have unraveled the interactions (both innate and adaptive immunity) that lead to the eradication of viruses, bacteria, parasites, and now, cancer. Notable cellular players include T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, dendritic cells, and macrophages, along with a host of secreted mediators - antibodies, complement, cytokines, and chemokines - each of which fulfills particular immunologic functions. Processes, autoimmune disease can be a consequence. These diseases also occur if shared. When the immune system fails to regulate these antigens are recognized by the immune system in cells; one example is Lambert-Eaton syndrome. Monoclonal antibodies that target tumour reactive T cells (eg, nivolumab and pembrolizumab) can also cause autoimmune disease; other examples include graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients and cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which is associated with adoptive T cell therap.

ute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Blood 128: 763.

Wednesday 27 April 2022

Lupine Publishers| Detecting Distributed Denial-of-Service DDoS Attacks

 Lupine Publishers| Journal Computer Sciences & Applications


Since the number of damage cases resulting from distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks has recently been increasing, the need for agile detection and appropriate response mechanisms against DDoS attacks has also been increasing. The latest DDoS attack has the property of swift propagation speed and various attack patterns. There is therefore a need to create a lighter mechanism to detect and respond to such new and transformed types of attacks with greater speed. In a wireless network system, the security is a main concern for a user.


Security of information is of utmost importance to organization striving to survive in a competitive marketplace. Network security has been an issue since computer networks became prevalent, most especially now that internet is changing the face of computing. As dependency on Internet increases on daily basis for business transaction, so also is cyber-attacks by intruder who exploit flaws in Internet architecture, protocol, operating systems and application software to carry out their nefarious activities Such hosts can be compromised within a short time to run arbitrary and potentially malicious attack code transported in a worm or virus or injected through installed backdoors. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) use such poorly secured hosts as attack platform and cause degradation and interruption of Internet services, which result in major financial losses, especially if commercial servers are affected (Duberdorfer, 2004).

Related Works

Brignoli et al. [1] proposed DDoS detection based on traffic selfsimilarity estimation, this approach is a relatively new approach which is built on the notion that undisturbed network traffic displays fractal like properties. These fractal-like properties are known to degrade in presence of abnormal traffic conditions like DDoS. Detection is possible by observing the changes in the level of self-similarity in the traffic flow at the target of the attack. Existing literature assumes that DDoS traffic lacks the self-similar properties of undisturbed traffic. The researcher shows how existing bot- nets could be used to generate a self-similar traffic flow and thus break such assumptions. Streilien et al,2005. Worked on detection of DoS attacks through the polling of Remote Monitoring (RMON) capable devices. The researchers developed a detection algorithm for simulated flood-based DoS attacks that achieves a high detection rate and low false alarm rate.

Yeonhee Lee [2] focused on a scalability issue of the anomaly detection and introduced a Hadoop based DDoS detection scheme to detect multiple attacks from a huge volume of traffic. Different from other single host-based approaches trying to enhance memory efficiency or to customize process complexity, our method leverages Hadoop to solve the scalability issue by parallel data processing. From experiments, we show that a simple counterbased DDoS attack detection method could be easily implemented in Hadoop and shows its performance gain of using multiple nodes in parallel. It is expected that a signature-based approach could be well suited with Hadoop. However, we need to tackle a problem to develop a real time defense system, because the current Hadoop is oriented to batch processing.

Proposed System Architecture of Intrusion Detection Based on Association Rule

The structure of the proposed architecture for real time detection of Dos instruction detection via association rule mining, it is divided into two phases: learning and testing. The network sniffer processed the tcpdump binary into standard format putting into learning, during the learning phase, duplicate records as well as columns with single same data were expunge from the record so as to reduce operational. Another table Hashmap was created by the classification model to keep track of the count of various likely classmark that can match the current read network traffic, this table will be discarded once the classmark with highest count had been selected. Depicted in Table 1 is the Association rule classifier algorithm (Tables 2-4).

Table 1: Association Rule Mining Classifier Algorithm.


Table 2: Sample Rules.


Table 3: Sampled number combination table.


Table 4: Sample Network Traffic Data.


System Implementation

This chapter presents implementation of Association rule classifier model, documentation of the designed system and the user interfaces. The software and hardware requirement needed for the system and also the testing of the system for verification and validation of functions, as well as the result [3-10].

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Tuesday 26 April 2022

Lupine Publishers| Mini Overview of Key Issues in Routing for OSPF MANETs

 Lupine Publishers| Computer Sciences & Applications


Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a well known and prominent Internet Protocol (IP) for network routing. By deploying a link state routing (LSR) algorithm OSPF comes under the category of interior gateway routing protocols. In today’s wireless ad hoc Internet, the current routing domain needs to maintain a peak level of service accessibility and availability, thus OSPF must be extended to the wireless ad hoc network for maximizing routing performance in the network by taking into account key routing issues, i.e., optimal Hello Interval, efficient flooding schemes, optimizing the traffic engineering related issues, optimum adjacency creations, connectivity factors, reducing control overhead, and QoS and security challenges. In addition, OSPF is very effective in its adoption of handling the network bandwidth utilization, therefore, wireless capacity planning is of utmost importance for today’s Internet with the possible presence of wireless infrastructure. Improving routing stability in OSPF MANET under topology change(s) due to variation in link connectivity becomes a very demanding challenge for the research community. Given a fascinating volume of review for literature and unavoidable importance relating to OSPF extension to MANETs, there has still persist a need to highlight key issues related with routing in OSPF MANET.

Keywords: MANETs; Routing; OSPF; Traffic Engineering; Connectivity Factors; Capacity Planning; Flooding Schemes


Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a very well-known and prominent interior gateway protocol (responsible for routing) in the today’s Internet [1]. The routing functionality of such protocols can be seen within the domain, which can be, but not necessarily, is part of or contained within an autonomous system (AS). OSPF as part of the routing protocol comes under the group of link state routing protocol, which generally allows every router present in the network to learn about the complete network topology [2]. However, in order to achieve maximum routing performance, it is now for almost more than 3 decades that the Internet protocols for link state routing has been deployed in the Internet on the regular basis. When we go back in history, the first major and functional link state routing protocol was deployed in the year 1978, called the Shortest Path First (SPF) by replacing the popular distance vector approach in ARPANET at that time.

The OSPF Protocol is now being used by the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) for almost more than 25 years as a link state routing functionality in providing the Internet infrastructure. The maximum years of experience running with the OSPF Protocol and its wide spread deployment has put a lot of confidence in using it as a reliable and stable link state routing and has demanded and motivated the researchers from all over the world to put in the efforts to create room for further improvements and enhancements in its application for extending its operation to wireless ad hoc media in MANETs. As a matter of fact, the quality of service (QoS) requirements and the attributes of the routing infrastructures in MANETs is a demanding challenge as the network topology is frequently changing due to mobility [3,4].

The objective function of the OSPF-MANET Protocol is to provide highly scalable routing functionality and more flexible and robust operation on complex and highly dense networks. The prime concern in today 0 s wireless media is to somehow keep in limit the bandwidth processing requirements of the protocol while recovering from the network failure (Speed of Convergence) in the network topology is the prime concern [3,5]. Whenever there is a triggered event in the OSPF-MANET domain, in such case the protocol may typically required a few tens of seconds for recovering from any sort of router/link failure (network failure). During this ephemeral state, the network quality of service availability would go through a serious degradation or deterioration or in other cases there may be a complete breakdown of the network.

With the establishment of real time operations for certain applications over the Internet, (e.g. online video con-ferencing) or networked voice over IP from almost a previous decade, network service deterioration/ disruption for applications with quick response time, a few tens of seconds (network recovery time) can no more be permitted or accepted. The need to quickly recover from the failure has motivated the research community to present the possible scenarios to improve the OSPF Speed of Convergence and also to provide other proactive approaches and strategies for protecting the network traffic in the interim process [6]. One of the critical and important requirements for the today0 s routing infrastructure has highlighted the need of maximizing routing performance in response to the topology change.

Significantly, reducing the bandwidth/processing requirement of the Internet routing protocol persuades to be the crucial framework as before. As the OSPF protocol being distributed in nature, it incorporates the within limit execution of the certain operations like processing and generation of the Hello packets by the active routers taking part in it [7]. It is important to mention here that the routers may not be highly overloaded, so that it may continuously decline to do/perform these critical network resource management operations. Such failures may contribute to the network failure and eventually result in the complete shutdown of the entire network. Hence, a novel scheme, refereed to as multi point relay (MPR) based MANET is introduced to tackle this issue, as presented in (Figure 1).

Figure 1: MPR based MANET extension. .


Conventionally, OSPF routing protocol has been employed as the network framework including a wired connectivity by exhibiting the largely static regional network topology. However, in the recent times routing infrastructure incor-porates the wireless components of the network too. These chunk subsist of either mobile or static network devices, possibly going out or coming in of each other’s mobile wireless range, or a hodgepodge of both. An illustration/ case of such kind of network can be classified as wireless, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) of objects where some objects exhibits mobile wireless connections with one or more conventional wired network(s) running under OSPF routing protocol. In a pragmatic scenario, lots of routing protocols have been devised to operate for the MANET, by using the selected routing protocol for MANET environment; the complex exchange process is required in such case while going through a transition step for the routing information of OSPF between this protocol and the other protocol that is targeted. In such situation, the exchange process might not evade/shun path for sub optimality. In such compelling situations, there is a high demand to enhance routing protocol in MANETs for OSPF domain by providing routing functionality and to intelligently assimilate the wireless and the wired peripherals of a network in the routing world.

This argument presented above incorporates a view of multiple proposals to enhance OSPF for its operation on MANETs. Researches for the last 2 decades have proposed multiple optimized OSPF routing protocols for MANET by suggesting the reduced number of re-transmissions, which are redundant in nature while disseminating a broadcast message throughout the entire network and, thus efficiently reducing the computational overhead of the active control traffic. This proposal eventually enhance the main characteristics of maximizing routing performance by highlighting the precise demands of the MANET networking. A few of those techniques out of the mentioned proposal present in the paper may be applied to the wireless network and has the capability to significantly improving both the Convergence speed and the Scalability factor of the OSPF networks having wireless connectivity.

Introduction to Routing in MANETs

Mobile ad hoc Networks (MANETs), which are also called Mesh Networks, are characterized by the way in which nodes are placed in such a manner that give pathways to data to be routed from the user to the desired destination. In the event that one of the intermediate node were to come up short (e.g. that user leaves the range), the system will naturally reconfigure itself, locating a substitute way from the user to the router [3,6]. Normally, all accessible nodes additionally arrange users, each sharing the aggregate data exchange limit (total capacity) of the operational hardware and operating protocol being incorporated. The network could likewise associate users to different routers straightforwardly, as would be done in a modern control and monitoring network. Since there is no requirement for central organization of the network setup, it is most proficient to outline the framework for independent operation of each node. In a modern domain, a circumstance, for example, an alert would be engendered through the network and reached directly by each node. Each node would be customized to react as per its specific requirement machine control, handle observing, supervisory work force or central office.

MANETs decide their arrangement periodically under topology change in the network. Every node identify the nodes that are accessible for communications, on the basis of signal strength, which is essentially identified with separation between nodes, but on the other hand is influenced by interference or obstructions [8]. A nodes may be remote, others might be perceptible yet have insufficient signal strength for reliable communications. Once the accessible nodes are distinguished, this information is communicated to different nodes, along network topology regarding the desired destination. Incorporating the network configuration algorithms, the system setup calculations to choose a specific route for every user to its destination. This procedure requires system operating software to have better decision making algorithms in light of pragmatic criteria for signal strength, reliability of path over time, and configuration parameters for network [9]. After some time, or even close persistently, the network will change. Users may go back and forth, nodes might be in motion, or changes in the electromagnetic environment may modify the spread between nodes. As these progressions occur, the network will overhaul its design and distinguish new paths from users to destinations [3,8]. This kind of reconfiguration will be rehashed again and again as the network changes. It is important to mention here that this is a similar procedure being incorporated on part of the Internet, where system loading and other hardware issues require redirection of user’s information through different routers [2].

The key advantages of ad hoc network includes autonomy from central administration of network, self-arranging, nodes behave as routers, self-healing through nonstop re-arrangement, scalabilitymake room for the expansion of more nodes and flexibility-like having the capability to get to the Internet from various different areas. While MANETs are normally utilized where they have the best accentuation on its advantages, there are a few confinements: Every node must have full execution, throughput is influenced by system loading, reliability requires an adequate number of accessible nodes. Finally, sparse networks can have routing issues [10].

Large networks can have inordinate latency (time delay), which influences a few applications. Some of these restric-tions additionally apply to traditional hub-and-spoke based networks (like OSPF) or can’t be tended to/by interchange setups. For instance, all networks are influenced by system loading, and networks with couple of nodes are hard to legitimize in hard-wired arrangements [5]. Wireless local area network (W-LAN) is the underlying application that got a deliberate advancement exertion. Shared networks of PC/PDA users have become familiar in this regard. Commercial wireless Internet service providers (WISP) incorporate repeater nodes to extend to large coverage area, while user nodes can extend service in their local area. Control systems (e.g. natural controls) and industrial monitoring of different processes and control are getting to be significant applications for mesh networking. These environments are hard to present with devoted wiring, being spread over a vast area, frequently with troublesome access.

Key Issues with OSPF MANETs

Some of the important issues regarding MANETs are security, routing, hidden terminal problem, bandwidth, power limitation and corroboration of mobile devices. Safeguarding the data communication in MANETs is one of the key aspect to be addressed. It is important to mention here that MANETs are highly dynamic in nature where topology changes, for instance the link breakage happens quite frequently [5,9]. Thus, we need a security mechanism which is dynamic in nature too. Some of the important security requirements of MANETs are certain discovery, isolation of the in-appropriate nodes and some location policy regarding node location and network structure. From security aspect of MANETs, there are basically two types of attacks on the network, i.e., active attack which inserts arbitrary packets and attempts to disrupt the network operation and passive attack which do not disrupt the network operation [7,11]. Another important aspect regarding security in MANETs is that each node in the network relies upon the other nodes to forward the data packets while during communication. Hence, before communication in MANETs one must tackle efficiently with the presented issues.

Routing in Wireless Adhoc Networking

The no presence of fixed infrastructure in MANETs creates certain demanding challenges and difficulties. The biggest challenge among them is routing. Routing is the method of selecting paths in a network along which data need to be communicated to the desired destination through nodes [1,9]. An ad hoc network is a tradition, or standard, routing protocol that controls how routers choose which way to route the data packets between source(s) and destination(s) in MANETs. In MANETs, nodes don’t begin acquainted with the topology of their networks; rather, they need to find it [6,7]. The fundamental thought is that a new node may declare its presence and ought to listen for various announcements broad-casted by its neighbors. In the process each nodes learns about near-by nodes and how to reach them and may announce that it can get to that node as well. The routing procedure normally follows forwarding on the basis of routing tables which keep up a record of route(s) to different network destinations [2,5]. In this way, building routing tables, which are held in the memory of router, is critical for effective routing.

The development of laptops and 802.11/Wi-Fi wireless networking administration has made MANETs a famous look into point since the 1990s. Numerous academic papers assess protocols and capabilities expecting fluctuating degrees of mobility inside a bounded space, more often than not with all nodes inside a couple of hops from each other and typically with nodes sending information at a constant rate. Multiple protocols are then evaluated in view of the packet drop rate, expected routing load, expected end-toend- delay, and other different measures [3,11]. The proposed techniques for routing protocols could be gathered in to three classes: proactive (or table-driven), reactive (or on-request) and hybrid protocols. Indeed, even the reactive protocols have turned into the standard for MANET routing.

MANETs are suited for use in circumstances where network infrastructure is either not accessible on the other hand not trusted. For example, a communication network for military officers in a field, a mobile network of smart phones in a meeting or campus setting, temporary workplaces in a crusade home office, biological research in wireless sensor networks, mobile social networks like Facebook, My-Space and Twitter, and mobile mesh networks for Wi-Fi devices [8,10]. The main challenges in MANETs are taking advantage of wireless mesh nodes to build a robust backbone network for interconnecting all mesh nodes, and probably some external gateways to/from the Internet. Describing a class of MANET routing protocols that, by taking advantage of network backbone can sort out the best path(s) for traffic engineering by solving the Multi Commodity Flow (MCF) problem inside the network to/from the Internet and supporting dynamic user topology and mobility among wireless mesh networks [11]. These challenges are mainly centered on the major areas like, MANETs application scenarios, communication protocols, hardware and software requirements and QoS based optimization techniques.

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Saturday 23 April 2022

Lupine Publishers | The Effect of Soil Moisture Level on Growing of Two Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L) Cultivars



The amounts of water use efficiency vary with climatic, soils and crop ability to extract water in the soil. It has been frequently reported, lack of water availability reduce the amount and yield of common bean. The aim of study was to determine the effect of soil moisture level on growth of two common bean cultivars. The study was conducted in greenhouse. The design was factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design. Forty eight treatment pots were used for two common bean cultivars. Four seeds were sown in 48 pots filled with 5cm soil depth and irrigated until water dripping through perforated base. From total pots, 24 pots selected randomly and labeled as BULGA-70 cultivar and the rest as CS-20-DK cultivar. After germination, only one uniform plant was kept and five water treatments levels, 100 % (Control), 75%, 50% and 25% were applied by field capacity. Plant height, leaf area and dry matters were measured. As results, plant height, leaf area and dry weight in both cultivars were significant to soil moisture condition. However, no significant difference was observed 100% and 75% water levels in both cultivars. Therefore, 75% water treatment level is advisable for farmers to minimize water wastage.

Abbrevations: Soil moisture; Common bean; Cultivars; Water treatment


Common bean is one of the most important pulse crops in Ethiopia, due to its richness in protein content. Common bean is also an important crop in crop rotation due to its fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, organic matter and improving water use efficiency of the cropping system [1,2]. Crop rotations can increase crop yield than monoculture due to its diversity in plant water use, rooting pattern and crop type [3]. The beneficial effects of crop rotation include;

(i) better soil moisture use and nutrients uptake,

(ii) Reduced disease, insects, weeds and phytotoxic compounds [4]. Inadequate variable water supply has a negative effect on crop production across different climatic regions.

The problem is more prominent in tropical countries including Ethiopia and subtropical semiarid and arid climates, in which water losses through evaporation and evapotranspiration are high [5].

Drought, which can occur at any stage during plant growth, reduces pod yield and pod quality of common bean. Drought reduces the number of flowers, pod setting and leaf area in bean By 51, 63 and 60%, respectively [6]. Many study reported that drought stress at all growth stages reduces yield and yield components in bean, but the effect was worst when drought occurred during reproductive stages [7]. Although there are reports that common bean is susceptible to drought stress or water deficit, the production of this crop in many places of the world is carried out under drought stress conditions [8]. This is due to insufficient water supply by rainfall and/or irrigation. This indicated that drought stress is not only in Ethiopia but also a worldwide production constraint for common bean [9].

Therefore, Water stress has been reported to reduce the expression of many characteristics in faba beans. In common beans, accelerated maturity of crop along with reducing grain yield and mean weight of hundred seeds following water stress, have been reported [3,10]. Furthermore, common bean cultivar has reported to respond differently to soil moisture stress depending on the severity of water stress [9]. In fact, different management techniques like irrigation can contribute to the increase of grain yield under water stress conditions, but the development of tolerant cultivars becomes an efficient and economical production strategy. Therefore, this study aimed to the effect of some water stress treatments (25, 50, 75 and 100% of field capacity) on growth and development of two common bean cultivars (Bulga-70 and CS-20-DK) which were released in 1977 and 1994 respectively by Holeta Research Centre, Ethiopia.

Materials and Methods

Description of the Study Area

The study was conducted at DebreMarkos University greenhouse demonstration site in the year 2016. Debremarkos University is geographically located in DebreMarkos town at latitude and longitude of 10°20′N 37°43′E and an elevation of 2,446 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l). The annual average temperature is 18.70c while the minimum and maximum recorded temperature being 40c and 240c, respectively. Annual average rain fall ranges from 900- 1800mm. The climate condition is characterized by woyna dega (1500-2300 m.a.s.l). The soil characteristics of the study area are mainly is clay ranging from 50-73%, silt fraction 15.88%-40.21% and sand fraction 0.36-13.28.

Research Design and Sampling Procedures

The design of study was by 2*4 (two verities with four water treatment level) factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with replicated in six times. Total of 48 treatment pots were arranged randomly. At beginning, four seeds were sown in 48 pots filled with soil and sand mixture of 3:1 ratio and a depth of 5cm soil depth. Irrigated the 48 pots until water is begins dripping through the perforated base. Then, from the total pots, 24 pots were selected randomly and labeled as BULGA-70 cultivar and the rest as CS-20-DK cultivar. After germination, only one uniform plant was kept in each pot throughout the experiment. Five levels of plant available water treatments of 100 % (as Control), 75%, 50% and 25% capacity by weight), imposed when the plants were established with two true leaves for the two cultivars. The pots were weighed in two days intervals to compensate the water loss by evapotranspiration and therefore, the pot soil moisture was kept at 100, 75, 50 and 25% of field capacity according to treatments.

The plant height, leaf area and leaf dry matters were measured at 35 days after planting. The leaf area, plant height and leaf dry matter was measured by using squared pare method, ruler and oven-dried for 48 hr in 600c., respectively All collected data were statistically elaborated using analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by means separation using the Least Significant Difference (LSD) at P<0.05. All calculations were performed using SAS 9.0 software package.

Results and Discussions

Plant Height

Plant height was significantly affected by at high water stress level in both cultivars (Table 1). CS-20-DK cultivar produced the tallest plants at all water stress level. Water stress depressed plant height in both cultivars and the shortest plants were produced at higher water stress levels (Table 1). There is no a statically significance between 100% , 75% and 50% water treatment in Bulga-70, but there is significant difference between 100% and 75% with 50% water treatment in CS-20-DK cultivar (Table 1). This finding is in line with the results of Emam et al. [11] and Shenkut and Brick [12] who reported on plant height is affected by severe influence from environmental factors such as water stress.

Table 1: Effect of water stress levels on plant height (cm) of two common bean cultivars.

Mean values followed by different small letter (s) within the same row and different capital letter(s) within the same column are significantly different at p < 0.05(LSD test)

Plant leaf areas

Table 2: Effect of water stress levels on plant leaf area (cm2/plant) of two common bean cultivars.

Mean values followed by different small letter (s) within the same row and different capital letter(s) within the same column are significantly different at p < 0.05(LSD test)

Plant leaf area was significantly affected by high water stress level in both cultivars (Table 2). There is no statically difference between the two cultivars at all water stress level (Table 2). CS-20- DK produces the highest broad leafed plants at 100% and 75% water stress level. Water stress depressed plant leaf area in both cultivars and the narrow leafed plants were produced at higher water stress levels (Table 2). There is no statically significant difference between 100% and 75%, and also between 50% and 25% water stress levels in Bulga-70 cultivar but there is significant difference between 100 % and 75% with 50% and 25% water stress level. Similarly, in CS- 20-DK cultivar no statistically significant difference between 100% and 75%, but there is statistically significant between 100% and 75% with 50% and water stress level (Table 2).

This study also in lines with finding of Emam [13], Emam et al. [11] who were reported that leaf area was reduced when the plant exposed to drought stress during vegetative growth stages. Furthermore, the study also consisted with Nielsen 1998 observed that there is significant reduction in the common bean leaf area index under drought condition. Markhart [14] also found significant reductions in the leaf area under drought condition at 23 days after planting for two bean species. The loss of leaf area which could be resulted from reduced size of younger leaves and inhibition of the expansion of developing foliage is also considered as an adaptation mechanism to moisture deficit.

Plant leaf dry weight

Plant dry weight was decreased as increased of water stress level in both cultivars (Table 3). There is no statistically significant difference between 100% and 75% water stress levels in CS-20- DK. But, there is significant difference with 50 % and 25% water stress level. There is no significant difference between 100%, 75% and 50% water treatment levels in Bulga-70 (Table 3). Water stress significantly decreased dry weight at 50% and 25% in both cultivars. The highest and the lowest percentage reductions in leaf dry weight were observed in both cultivars. Barrios et al. (2005) reported that leaf dry weight of common beans reduced when plants are exposed to drought stress. Other studies like Emam [15] and Rosales Serna et al. [16] have also reported significant differences in shoot biomass accumulation among dry bean cultivars grown under moderate to severe drought stress conditions.

Table 3: Effect of water stress levels on leaf dry weight (gm) of two common bean cultivars.

Conclusions and Recommendations

The result of this study confirm that water availability play a major role in plant height, plant leaf area and plant leaf dry weight of growing common bean. Common bean production depends mainly on soil water condition. A high level of soil water availability usually ensures an optimal common bean growth. Any restriction in the supply of irrigation water induces decrease plant growth. The impact of deficient irrigation on plant growth can be insignificant where the water stress is applied to the plant during specific growth stage that are less sensitive to moisture deficiency .The result of the study confirms these ideologies. Therefore, for effective utilization of irrigation water and optimum growth of common bean cultivars, 75% water treatment level is advisable for farmers to use so as to avoid wastage of water.


Author thanks third year natural resource management students for watering, collecting and managing the research data during the field experiment. I am thankful again to Dr. Kassahun Berihanu for continuous help during the study. I would like to express my cordial thank to the College of agriculture and natural resource for providing of faba bean seeds and allowing to use the greenhouse.

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Friday 22 April 2022

Lupine Publishers | Living in the Anthropocene

 Lupine Publishers | Journal of Anthropological and Archaeological Sciences


The Anthropocene is the proposed geological epoch where humans have changed some of Earth’s systems. There are many debates surrounding the Anthropocene from if it is a new geological epoch, if it is a new epoch when did it begin and the distinction between nature and human made [1]. Cities have had a major environmental impact across the world, shaping the physical geological environment and could be considered monuments of the Anthropocene. During the Anthropocene, humans have shifted from nomadic and rural lifestyles towards hunting in the big city. Rapidly increasing city populations has placed further pressure on the environment and according to Davis [2], the urban population at the time of his work was 3.2 billion. Davis [2], predicts that cities will account for all future world population growth, which is expected to peak at 10 billion people in 2050. As this growth continues, we will see the rise of megacities (population of 8 million) and hyperscities (population of 20 million). Shanghai’s population could rise to as many as 27 million people and Davis [2] begins question whether such large populations are biologically or ecologically sustainable. Across the world we are beginning to see a green architecture movement aiming to lessen the impact cities are having on the environment. Green architecture is an example of cultural niche construction in modern urban environments. Laland and O’Brien [3] argue that human niche construction through modifying the environment there is the creation of artefacts and ecologically inherited resources that not only place pressure on gene selection but also facilitate learning and mediate cultural traditions. In demonstrating this argument Laland and O’Brien [3] use the example of the construction of urban spaces such as villages and towns, which present new health hazards such as the spread of epidemics. Humans can respond to these selective pressures through cultural evolution constructing hospitals and developing medications. Each city presents its own set of challenges when considering green architecture, which include ecological, economic and cultural challenges. The aim here is to investigate the relationship between human and non-human in green urban environments. Macquarie University in Sydney makes a good field for this project as there are numerous examples of green spaces such as the library that have used green architecture, a variety of themed gardens, manmade water features and large quantities of plant life amongst a range of buildings located in the hub of Macquarie Park.

The Field

Figure 1: Map of Sydney showcasing Macquarie University’s location. (Source: google images. Image by GEMOC Macquarie University).


The sound of raging cars pierces through the thick smog of the formally crisp morning air. There is seemingly no hiding from the noises, the smells or the sights of the city. Whether we live in a studio apartment with a pocket-sized window or a top floor penthouse with more bedrooms than people we all face the same concerns in an urban environment. As the day progresses, we navigate the city using various modes of transport, a variety of steel boxes powered by burning fossils and electric currents try to mask us from these toxic interactions, but these come with their own set of issues. We follow paths that have been carved through the surface of the Earth and held into place with concrete; they feel cold and are so dark they appear endless. Delays are inevitable whether it’s bumper to bumper on congested roads or shoulder to shoulder on a stressed public transport system. Finally, an automated computer system tells that we have reached our destination and for some this simply means they will spend the next portion of their day in steel and concrete monuments with the next thing to look forward too is the same arduous commute home. However, for others when they exit their modes of transport suddenly there is space, the air is fresher and the sights more scenic. The emergence of green architecture in urban environments has many benefits, which students at Macquarie University get to experience every day on campus. Macquarie University is located 40 minutes North of the Sydney city central business district (Figure 1).

The University attracts students from Sydney’s West, North, East and South as well as International students from all corners of the Earth. The University is surrounded by concrete monuments in every direction from the growing Ryde and Hornsby business and residential districts. The University Library is a premium example of green urban space as it utilizes a range of sustainable elements such as construction, water recycling, power conservation, innovative technology and green spaces predominantly the green roof. Sustainability was a key aspect of the library’s construction with 80% construction waste being recycled [4]. The production of both concrete and steel consumes a lot of energy and produces high carbon emissions. The University combated this concern by using recycled materials to save on the production of new materials for the library. Meticulous planning was not only put into the construction of the library but also the design of the library. The library was designed with a glass facade to allow in maximum levels of light to save on energy used to produce artificial light [4]. To allow natural light through the entire building two wells are located in the middle of the library that makes use of large windows spreading light through the building. The final element of the library’s design covered here is the roof, it is unlike many other examples of green architecture that line their roofs with black solar panels. The library features a green roof, which makes use of native plants providing an irrigation system for the 300 000-liter water tank that sits beneath the library [4] (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Part of Macquarie University’s green roof. (Source: Macquarie University. Image by Macquarie University.).


The water tank reduces the amount of water the University takes from Sydney’s water supply by using the water for university toilets and watering the University’s other green spaces such as the gardens and grass. While environmental, economic and social benefits are important aspects of green architecture in the Anthropocene, the element that is most often missing is the way humans utilize and connect with spaces [5].

Across the first semester of 2016 at Macquarie University I used three different locations across the campus for participant observation sites; the library green roof, Macquarie University’s lake and Wally’s walk which intersects with three of the university’s native gardens. I visited each site twice for an hour in the two weeks that followed the mid-semester break. Despite the university website suggesting that green roof had also been designed for informal study, social gatherings and university club and group meetings there was little to be seen in my observations in week 7 and week 8. I observed the site between 12:30 and 1:30 pm when the University is usually at its busiest, both days the sun shone brightly, and the temperature sat comfortably at 23 and 26 degrees Celsius respectively highlighting no obvious reasoning for the lack of engagement with the green roof. I visited my second site on the same days between 11:15 and 12:15 pm, the lake is located adjacent to the food court and central hub. During these periods of observation, I began to notice several behavior patterns; across both observations 122 people sat on the grass between the lake and the central hub mostly to eat their lunch. However, as more people gathered it became evident that people did not want to sit next to the lake, there was an approximately 15-meter gap between the lake and the closest group of people. There were several individuals who were able to break this invisible barrier if only for a few seconds to take their phone out and take a picture before retreating to their group. The final site I observed was Wally’s walk between 2:30 and 3:30 pm and on both occasions a university group was served chai tea on the grass. The remainder of the grass was covered in a thick undisturbed blanket of leaves that had fallen from the surrounding trees. This space has four benches and tables that have been used to promote multifaceted use such as eating, studying and recreational activities. Wally’s walk appeared to be a high traffic area for the university with streams of students walking between the surrounding buildings and stopping at the coffee cart next to student connect. As I continued to observe I noticed that people were stopping for more than just coffee, in the middle of the walkway people would stop with their friends pointing towards the garden with many even pulling out their phones to take pictures before continuing without engaging further with the space. Participant observation studies have many advantages and disadvantages which I encountered during my visits to the field. Observation is unobtrusive meaning there is little to no manipulation of the participants and there is no rigorous ethics approval required. Critiques of observational approaches have been that they are unfalsifiable, generating debate over key findings and analysis of behaviors [6]. Understanding the relationship between humans and green built environments requires more than observational behavioral analysis. Critical discourse analysis stems from theory of language that views the use of language as a social practice [7]. Through analyzing language used to discuss green urban environments at Macquarie University I was able to uncover new insights into the way humans use green urban spaces. Table 1 below demonstrates a sample of the different ways people think about, discuss and use green spaces at Macquarie University.

Table 1: A sample of social media commentary on green spaces at Macquarie University.


Participant observation and discourse analysis revealed that people who visit Macquarie University do engage with many of the green spaces that are available. However, the engagement with the spaces tends to be superficial with spaces being used for photo opportunities instead of their primary social function. There are numerous barriers that cause a superficial engagement which include lack of facilities on the green roof such as chairs, benches or shade deterring people from using the roof as a studying or social space. Secondly many of the green spaces such as native gardens and the green roof are well hidden meaning that many people who come to Macquarie University regularly may not know that they exist. Thirdly some forms of wildlife particularly birds encourage people to look for other spaces as they associated with many common fears such as being swooped or having food stolen. Finally, some social media commentary identified litter as a deterrent from using green spaces on campus. The commentary specifically mentions smoking and cigarettes as a key issue as both an aesthetical and health concern. Does this mean spaces were designed with the wrong functions in mind? Are the spaces not promoted correctly? How much do our relationships with green urban spaces matter if they are providing environmental benefits? In addressing these questions, we will begin to broaden its field to analyses if there are similar concerns with green urban spaces around the world.

Broadening the Field

Cities around the world are beginning to turn to green architecture to function in what would be considered a good Anthropocene. Living in a good Anthropocene is more than reducing carbon footprints through recycling energy and sustainable construction. The second part of a good Anthropocene is humans being able to positively interact with green urban spaces generating social benefits. Humans interact with the built environment in many different ways; typically, this will involve changes in designs or construction to solve problems that are plaguing the community. Illness and Health are two key factors that have been behind changes to urban environments. An early example of this type of change is in 19th century London where an outbreak of cholera which people believed these foul smells or miasmas, prompting improvement of infrastructure such as waste disposal essentially shaping what we view as the modern city [8]. Modern cities are becoming plagued with different kinds of illnesses specific to urban environments that impact on humans’ mental health and lack of physical activity. According to the World Health Organization, physical inactivity is a major public health risk. In Australia half of the population does not reach the 30 minute daily physical activity recommendations. A study found that people who use green urban spaces are three times more likely to achieve recommended levels of physical activity than those who do not use the spaces [9]. Urban environments have high incidences of schizophrenia with most suffers having a negative prognosis. Research in Brazil has demonstrated that many cases of mental illness can be linked to social environment factors such as living and work place settings, although other environmental factors like heavy metal poisoning cannot be ruled out as a key contributor [10]. This type of concern in urban environments demonstrates the need for green spaces to both improve the environment as well as provide a social space that can provide stress and anxiety relief to construct a healthy urban community. The Khoo Teck Puat Hospital [11] is an example of the fusion between greenery and the built environment having positive environmental effects and also beneficial to patient recovery (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Khoo Teck Puat Hospital showcasing a hospital in a garden and a garden inside a hospital. (Source: Khoo Teck Puat Hospital. Image by Alexandria Health).



Human relationships with green urban environments are incredibly complex, while many examples of green architecture create biodiversity, save electricity and water there is little research on how the spaces are used. Gil Penalosa who is an advocate for more active cities and director of Canadian organization 8-80 Cities says: “Successful public places around the world are successful not just because of the design but also because of the management. That’s not just cutting the grass and picking up the garbage. The bigger part of management is how to involve the community in the parks. We need to think of parks more as outdoor community centres where we need to invest in uses and activities so they can fulfil their potential. When we improve parks, we’re really improving quality of life” [14]. Studying Macquarie University through observation and discourse analysis as well as examples of green architecture across the world has demonstrated the positive environmental impacts but there are barriers to humans fully engaging with green spaces. Some of these issues may stem from the purpose of each example of green architecture and future studies would benefit from investigating a wider range of urban green spaces to gather a larger data pool. However, the lack of engagement with green spaces at Macquarie University could be countered through the University promoting the spaces by holding discussions or activities such as meditation or yoga in these spaces. Despite the many benefits that come with living in an urban environment such as internet, electricity and employment opportunities there are many physical and mental concerns that come from living in urban spaces. Fully utilizing green spaces is one way that humans can overcome the negative aspects of urban living [15]. Overcoming these concerns will be even more important in the future as urban populations continue to expand.

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