Monday 30 September 2019

Breeding population of Terns and Western Reef Heron Egretta gularis on Ghaber Nakhoda and Dara Islands, in Persian Gulf in 2003, 2009, 2012 and 2016

Lupine Publishers- Environmental and Soil Science Journal


The research was conducted on Ghabre Nakhoda and Dara islands in Khore Mosa Creek in Persian Gulf on August in 2003, 2009, 2012, and 2016. Total count method was used to obtain the census of the nests and breeding population of terns and Western Reef Heron on Islands. Five species of terns and Western Reef Heron had bred on Ghabre Nakhoda and Dara islands in 2003, 2009, 2012, and 2016. Average breeding pairs of Lesser Crested Tern Thalasseus bengalensis, Swift Tern Thalasseus bergii, Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus, White-cheeked Tern Sterna repressa, Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia and Western Reef Heron Egretta gularis were 1368, 63, 217, 71, and 13 pairs on Ghabre Nakhoda and 127, 7, 54, 4, 9, and 6 pairs on Dara, respectively. Thirty-one species from ten families belonged to two order of water birds recorded on August in 2003, 2009, 2012, and 2016 on both islands. Total number of counted water birds was 26303 individuals on Ghabre Nakhoda and 17404 individuals on Dara Island in 2003, 2009, 2012 and 2016. Maximum species richness on Ghabre Nakhoda was in 2016(31 species), but on Dara island was in 2009(18 species).


The detailed knowledge of general seabird ecology and of the numbers and productivity of many populations makes them particularly appropriate as a choice of bio-monitor or bio-indicator [1,2]. The colonial nature of breeding seabirds has several benefits. It allows numbers to be tracked for less effort than if the breeding populations were dispersed, and it allows large quantities of data to be collected from a particular site in a relatively short period of time. However, to be useful, a bio-monitor must respond in a sensitive way to changes in the variable for which it is a proxy measure [1,2]. It is widely accepted that the number of water birds using a site is a good indicator or that site’s biological importance, and they are also important indicator of the ecological condition of their habitats [3]. Terns are colonial breeding in Persian Gulf islands [ 4-7], and are bio-indicators to monitor the status of the environment of Islands [8]. There are 34 islands on northern part of Persian Gulf belong to Iran, six of them located in Khore Mosa in Khuzestan province [7]. Ghabre Nakhoda located in Middle of Khore Mosa and Dara at mouth of Khore Mosa (Figure 1).

The creeks and islands in the Khore Mosa are suitable sites for fishing and harvesting of shrimps and other aquatic species [7]. Terns, Herons, Gulls and Waders form important animal group heavily dependent on the islands for their continued existence [9]. There are many species of these seabirds in the Persian Gulf, [10,11] but the Ghabre Nakhoda and Dara Islands is important breeding site for terns, three in particular nest in vast number on the islands, these are the Lesser Crested Tern Thalasseus bengalensis,, Swift Tern Thalasseus bergii and Birdled Tern Sterna anaethetus. These three species of terns are dominant breeding in most islands of Persian Gulf [5,6] Herons notably Western Reef Heron Egretta gularis Little Egret Egretta garzetta and some wader species especially Crab Plover Dromas ardeola breed on this island [5,7,9,11,12]. Although the islands still support substantial water bird foraging and nesting populations, recent surveys suggest that population size has been reduced from historic levels. On the other hand, one of the aims of monitoring is to provide information for ecological assessment, which can provide early warning of changes that could negatively affect species or ecosystems [8]. For these reasons and protecting the sensitive habitats of water birds in Persian Gulf, also to awareness of breeding population changes for protecting the sensitive habitats, present study was carried out to count and compare the present population of colonial breeding tern’s species on Ghabre Nakhoda and Dara islands in Khore Mosa Creek in Persian Gulf in the breeding season.

Methods and Materials

Study Area

Khore Mosa Creek (30o11’01”N49o01’56”E) is consisted of several estuaries, creeks, and a main canal and is an important place for fisheries and aquaculture activities. All creeks around it are most important intertidal habitats of the Persian Gulf shoreline. There are a lot of small islands in Khore Mosa, but two of them (Ghabre Nakhoda and Dara) are important habitats for water birds (Figures 1 & 2). These islands are flat, sandy and Shelly, 70-90% of area of the Ghabre Nakhoda Island covered by vegetation in Feb and March, but More than two third of Dara island surface covered by water by a small branch of creek. All around of the islands are sandy beach (Figures 1 & 2). Area of the Ghabre Nakhoda Island is 3 hectares in high tide and more than 800 hectares in ebbs. There is a Grave in the middle of island, named Ghabre Nakhoda (Ghabr mean is Grave and Nakhoda meaning is Captain). Area of the Dara Island is 160 ha. Main plant species of both islands are Atriplex leucoclada, Stipa capensis, Suaeda fruticosa, Halostachys belangeriana, Calanderula persica, Malva sp, and Cistanche tubolusa. Cistanche tubolosa is vulnerable specie, Calendula persica is an endemic species [5,6,8].
Figure 1: Sugar beet leaf spot disease (Cercospora beticola Sacc.).
Figure 2: Sugar beet leaf spot disease (Cercospora beticola Sacc.).

Data Collection

The nests of terns and Western Reef Heron were counted directly on Ghabre Nakhoda and Dara Islands on August 2003,2009,2012 and 2016. The nests of Lesser Crested, White Cheeked, Caspian, and Swift terns (on sandy place of islands without any vegetation) and Western Reef Heron (on short bushes) were counted easily, because they were visible, (Figure 2). The nests of Bridled Tern were under the short bushes and were counted by looking under the bushes. Observation was done on August 15th, every year, which all breeding species had made nests and finished egg-laying. All birds observed and counted on mudflat of around of both islands, Ghabre Nakhda in morning (08:00Am to 12:00PM) and Dara at 14:00PM to 18:00PM. The existing birds were counted directly by total count methods at low tide. For accurate birds counting and determination, binocular 40×10 and telescope 15×60 was used. The birds were identified by studying their characteristic features in accordance with the identification keys evolved by Porter et al. [13], Colin [14], Baharat et al. [15], Sonobe & Usui [16] and Grimmett et al. [17].

Statistical Analyses

Species diversity, similarity percentage, evenness and species richness between water birds’ communities, in 2003, 2009,2012, and2016 were measured by Simpson’s, Shannon-Wiener, Menhinnink, Margalef and Brilouin indexes as fallow [18].
Simpson’s index diversity:
1-D = Simpson’s index of diversity, Ni = Number of individual of species i in the sample, N = Total number of individuals in the sample = Σni, S = Number of species in the sample
Shannon-Wiener index as:
H ' = Σ ( pi)(log2 pi)
H’ = Index of species diversity, pi=proportion of total sample belonging to ith species
Marghalef index:
=S-1/ln N
S= Number of species and N= total number of all individuals
Menhinnink index:
S= Number of species and N=total number of all individuals in sample.
Brilouin Index:
H=Brilouin index, N= Total number of individuals in entire collection, n1=Number of individuals belonging to species 1, n2= Number of individuals belonging to species 2, and
Evenness index:M
D = Observed index of species diversity, Dmin = minimum possible index of diversity given S and N., Dmax = Maximum possible index of diversity given S species and N individuals
Percentage similarity:
P = Percentage similarity between sample 1 and 2, P1i = Percentage of species i in community Sample 1, P2i = Percentage of species i in community sample 2.
Density analysis: The individual and total water bird densities for different years on Ghabre Nakhoda and Dara islands were calculated as numbers per hectare (Krebs 2001).

Result and Discussion

Species and Populations of Birds on Ghabre Nakhoda Island

Five species of terns and Western Reef Heron had bred on Ghabre Nakhoda Island in 2003, 2009, 2012, and 2016 (Table1). Average nests number of Lesser Crested Tern Thalasseus bengalensis were, 1200 nests (69.04%), (one egg on each nest, 1200 pairs), Swift Tern Thalasseus bergii 60 nests (3.4%) (one egg in each nest, 60 pairs) mixed with Lesser Crested Tern Sterna bengalensis, Bridled Tern Sterna anethetus 154 nests((8.86%) under the short bushes with154 pairs, small colony of White-cheeked Tern Sterne repressa, 4 nests(0.23%), and Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia 49 nests(2.82%) with 49 pairs had been bred in four years. Lesser Crested Tern and Swift Tern had bred on sandy ground on the islands. The Western Reef Heron breed on short bushes of Atriplex leucoclada, on the islands. The breeding population of terns and Western Reef Heron declined from3134 pairs in 2003 to 868 pairs in 2016. Reduction was 27.70% (Figure 3).
Figure 3: Number of nests of terns and Western Reef Heron on Ghabre Nakhoda Island on August 2003, 2009, 2012 and 2016.
Table 1: Comparison of number of nests of terns and Western Reef Heron on Ghabre Nakhoda Island on August 2003, 2009, 2012 and 2016.

The mudflats around Ghabre Nakhoda hold many hundreds of shorebirds and water birds in winter, also in summer, including large number of Numenius arquata, Numenius phaepus, Caldris minuta, Tring stegnatlis and Laridae species (Table 2). Thirty-one species of water birds belonged to eight families were identified on this island from 2003 to 2016. (29 species in 2003, 30species in 2009, 30 species in 2012 and 31 species in 2016) (Table 2). Counting was done at low tide and the area of the island was about 800 ha. Out of 31 species, the Crab Plover, Lesser crested Tern consisted more than 74.27 % of bird’s community in four years (Table 2). Five species were more than one percent and 24 species were less than 1%. Maximum birds were counted in 15 August 2016(8353 individuals 31.75%) and minimum birds were counted on15 August in 2003(5657 individuals 21.50 %). Number of counted birds increased from 2003-2016, 5657<5941<6350<8353 (Figure 4), but the number of species was approximately stable (29-31 species). Comparing these numbers, it can be shown that the number of water birds increased (10.25%) (Figure 4), but the breeding pairs declined from 2003-2016(Figure 3).
Figure 4: Total number of birds recorded in Ghabre Nakhoda Island on August in2003, 2009, 2012, and 2016.

Similarity of Water Birds Community on Ghabre Nakhoda

Table 3 shows the similarity between birds within 4 years on Ghabre Nakhoda Island. Similarity of breeding species was more than 70% within four years. The lowest similarity was between 2012 and 2016(70.12). The similarity between birds observed within four years were more than 70%. Highest similarity was 86.15 % (between 2009 and 2012) and lowest similarity was 58.01% between 2003 and 2016.

Species Diversity

Ecological Methodology software by Krebs 2001 was used to determine and compare the diversity of the water birds on Ghabre Nakhoda Island. The total bird species richness (No. of species present Table 2) was maximum in 2016(31 species) and minimum in 2003(29 species). Shannon Wiener index (H´) (Table 3) for total birds on Ghabre Nakhoda Island was on higher side with maximum during August 2016(1.82) and minimum in 2009(1.401) The evenness for total birds was maximum in August 2016 (0.199) and minimum in August 2009(0.1353). The value of evenness was found highest (0.199) in 2016 and lowest (0.1353) in 2009. The Simpson’s index of dominance was highest in 2003 (C=0.3451) and lowest in 2012 (C=0.2742). Marglef’s richness Index varied between 3.24 (2003, 3.337 in, 2009, 3.312 2012 and 3.322 in 2016), (Table 4).
Table 2: Agricultural applications made by image processing.
Table 3: Agricultural applications made by image processing.
Table 4: Agricultural applications made by image processing.

Species and Populations of Birds on the Dara Island

Dara Island is Greater than Ghabre Nakhoda, with a chain of high vegetated dunce along its western and eastern margins and around the southern end. The central part of island covering by water during high tide is without plant (Figure 2). Western part of island covered by vegetation is a suitable place for breeding of Bridled Tern. Nests of the breeding birds were counted at high tide and the area of island was 160 ha (Figure 1). Five species in 2003 six species in 2009, four species in 2012 and four species in 2016 had been bred on this island (Table 5). Breeding bird’s population increased from 164 pairs in 2003 to 347 pairs in 2016 (Figure 5). Breeding pairs of birds increased about two times. The Lesser Crested Tern was the dominate breeder species and breeding population of this species increased from 110 pairs in 2003 to 506 pairs in 2016. 142 pairs of Bridled Tern had bred in 2016 but had not bred in 2003. White-cheeked Tern had not bred in 2012 and 2016, but had bred in 2003 and 2009 (Table 5). In general, the total breeding population increased from 2003 to 2016 (Figure 5). Eighteen species of water birds were identified on the island in 2003, 2009, 2012, and 2016, (Table 6). Population of these 18 species increased from 4007 in 2003 to 5083 individuals in 2016 (Figure 5). Counting was done at low tide and the area of the island was about 500 ha.
Figure 5: Total number of nests of terns and Western Reef Heron on Dara Island on August in 2003, 2009.2012 and 2016.
Table 5: Total number of nests on Dara Island on August 2003, 2009, 2012 and 2016.
Table 6: Water birds of 18 species recorded on Dara Island on August 2003, 2009, 2012 and 2016.

Species Diversity

Diversity is a major aspect of species structure in avian community. Ecological Methodology software by Krebs 2001 was used to determine and compare the diversity of the water birds on Dara Island. Table 7 shows the diversity of water birds on Dara Island in 2003-2016.The Shannon’s index of diversity was found highest (H =1.66) in 2016 and lowest (H =1.078) in 2003. The value of evenness was found highest (0.3186) in 2012 and lowest (0.196) in 2003. The Simpson’s index of dominance was highest in 2003 (C=0.5519) and lowest in 2012 (C=0.3196). Krebs (2001) stated that this index gives relatively less importance to rare species and more to common species [18]. The value of Simpson’s Index in the 2012 was 0.6804 i.e. closer to ‘1’, thus, having higher dominance as compared to the value 0.4481 (closer to 0), indicating the lower dominance in August 2003. Simpson (1949) opined that dominance varies inversely with diversity which is in consonance to the present observations) [19]. Marglef’s richness Index varied between 1.641-2.05 (1.688 in, 2003, 2.05 in 2009, 1.672 in 2012 and 0.1.641 in 2016).
Table 7: Species diversity, richness and evenness of water birds on Dare Island.


The similarity percentage of water bird’s community among four years on Dara Island has been showed in Table 8, it shows there is some difference between breeder species (5 species in 2003 and 4 species in 2016) and breeding population of water birds (164 to 347 pairs) in August 2003 and 2016. These two numbers show that the number of water birds increased (21.17%) in 2016 (Table 6). Despite the differences in the populations of water birds, the similarity between observed species and population were more than 70%. Highest similarity was between 2009 and 2016(79.68%) for breeding birds, the lowest similarity was between 2003 and 2012 (57.55%). Highest similarity was between 2009 and 2016 for observed birds and lowest similarity was between 2003 and 2016.
Table 8: Agricultural applications made by image processing.

Bird Species Dominance

Dominance results when one or several species control the environment and conditions that influence associated species [20]. A total of 31 species were observed and recorded in and around islands covering both, waders and wading birds. The results indicate that overall 5 bird species dominated the area in terms of relative abundance (Tables 2 & 6). It was revealed that Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus was the most dominant (46.23%) fallowed by Crab Plover Dromas ardeola (33.90%), Slender–billed Gull Larus genei(4.08%), Black Headed Gull Larus ridibundus (3.01%) on Dara Island, but on Ghabre Nakhoda, Crab Plover (37.57%) flowed by Lesser Crested Tern (36.70%) and Bridled Tern were dominant species (Tables 2 & 6). Two species Bridled Tern (12.48%) and Lesser Crested Tern (78.71%), were dominating breeders on Ghabre Nakhoda Island in 2003-2016 (Table 1), but on Dara Island Lesser Crested Tern (49.60%) and Bridled Tern (21%) were dominant species (Table 5).

Threat and Conservation

Ghabre Nakhoda and Dara islands located in Khore Mosa, which is part of Shadegan marsh and this wetland is Ramsar site and wildlife refuge [5,11,21]. Wildlife refuge of 296000 ha, encompassing all the main wetland areas and the coastal mudflats in the south was established in 1972 and has remained since then [21]. The central and southern portions of Shadegan marsh and the mudflats of Khore–Al-Omayeh and Khore Mosa (a total of 400000 ha.) were designated as a Ramsar site on 23 June 1975[9,11,21]. The site has been identified as an “Important Bird Area” by Birdlife International [11]. Egg-collecting, chick and female harvesting when the females sited on eggs, roosting and staying of fishermen on island (Figure 6), illegal hunting, Pollution of water bodies by chemical compounds of oil Tankers, motor boats and factories are serious treats to the breeding population of birds [21]. Poaching is practiced particularly in the waters around islands. Oil pollution has been reported on the beaches around Bandar Imam in the southeast [5]. The breeding success of the species is sensitive to food availability, predator presence, and human disturbance and oil pollutions in Khore Mosa [22].


Khore Mosa is an economically and environmentally strategic creek in Persian Gulf. There are six sandy offshore islands in Khore Mosa. Khore Mosa and the southern estuaries of the Shadegan marshes are among the most important intertidal habitats of Persian Gulf shoreline. It holds considerable commercial and noncommercial aquatic species and populations. The creeks and islands in Khore Mosa are suitable habitats for fishing and harvesting of shrimps and other aquatic species. The specific conditions of the Khore Mosa, combined with high nutrient content of this water body, provide attractive conditions for many fish, shrimps and birds’ species to use it as, nursery, breeding and feeding habitat [21]. Terns, waders and gulls form main animal group heavily dependent in the Persian Gulf islands for their continued existence. There are many species of these seabirds on the islands and also on Ghabre Nakhoda and Dara, but six species in particular nest in vast number on the islands. These are the Western Reef Heron Egretta gularis, Lesser Crested Tern Thalasseus bengalensis, Whitecheeked Tern Sterna repressa, Swift Tern Thalasseus bergii, Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus and Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia. All six species occur together on Ghabre Nakhoda and Dara Islands, but each has distinctive nesting habitats, (Figure 1). Ghabre Nakhoda is ecologically extremely important for breeding and wintering of many migratory water bird species, as well as a breeding site for Marine Turtles [11]. Ghabre Nakhoda island is habitat for breeding birds, including at least 2 pairs of Egretta garzetta in 2003 (this species did not breed in 2009, 2012, and 2016), five terns’ species, all together more than3134 pairs in 2003, 1953 pairs in 2009, 997 pairs in 2012 and 868 pairs in 2016, (Table 1) and (Figure 2). Tuck (1974) reported, Mudflats around of this island are important staging and feeding habitat for a wide variety of shorebirds, Gulls and Terns [23] (Table 2), including up to 744 Larus ridibundus, 1368 Larus genei, 169 Larus fuscus, 9882 Dromas ardeola, 75 Naumenius arquata, 105 Naumenius phaopus. Ghabre Nakhoda, south most island and furthest offshore, is c.3 ha, almost elliptic, and composed mainly of sand with some rocky shores in the south and west. It is fringed with low dunce who encircles a central basin almost completely covered in dance, low scrub. Main plant community of the island is Atriplex+Stipa+Suaeda+Halostachys. Lesser Crested Tern and Swift Tern often make their nests on the bare ground, where each pair incubates a single egg, soon after hatching, the young congregate in a flock “crèche” near the water’s edge, where they are fed by their parents until fledging [24].These two species unable to colonies areas with too high or too dense vegetation, but nest sites of the Bridled Tern differ according to vegetation cover, height of vegetation and other characters of micro-habitat [24,25]. The Bridled Tern prefers place with a certain degree of cover (Minimum 70%), or even totally covered. Nests of this species are very simple and make under the scrubs especially under the Suaeda sp and Atriplex sp (Figure 2). Nests of the White Cheeked Tern are well spaced out on the beach flat and are often neatly built of twigs. Two eggs are the usual complement, and the young remains near the nest during the fledging period. All four Tern species occur together on Ghabre Nakhoda and Dara islands, but each has distinctive nesting habitat. Khore Mosa complex (Channels, islands, beaches, mudflats and sand hills) is the most important habitat for water birds in Persian Gulf. For this reason, Khore Mosa complex was suggested for classification as sensitive habitat for breeding water birds, [7], but egg-collecting, chick and female harvesting, when the females site on eggs are serious treats to the breeding population of terns and Crab Plover (Figure 6). Density of bird’s population increased from7.07 to 10.44 and 8.01 to 10.66 on Ghabre Nakhoda and Dara respectively from August 2003 to 2016, but breeding population reduced 27.69% on Ghabre Nakhoda Island and increased more than two times in Dara from 2003 to 2016. Comparing these numbers shows, the breeding population move between to islands. When breeding population of terns on Ghabre Nakhoda island decrease, it leads to an increase on Dara Island. Little Egret had bred only on Gabre Nakhoda Island in 2009(2 pairs) and 2 individuals of Ruddy Turn stone Arenaria interpres had observed in 2009 on Dara Island. Ghabre Nakhoda and Dara islands are more sensitive habitats during summer, because 6 species of water birds (Crab Plover, Swift and Lesser Crested Tern, Bridled Tern and White-cheeked Tern Caspian Tern) breed regularly on these islands. Breeding population of Crab plover on Dara Island was 11500 pairs in 2013, but I could not count the nests of this species in 2016, thus breeding population can’t be compared between 2016 and 2003- 2012. The destruction of historical nesting and feeding grounds has forced water birds to compete for diminishing resources (Figure 6). Clearing and degradation of fringing and littoral island vegetation reduces water bird breeding success as a consequence of the loss of habitat and increased vulnerability to predation by a range of species. The following measures should be taken during Breeding time to protect nests and birds on the two islands. The islands are required to be stopped appropriately to check the fishermen boats anchor to prevent further Population loss of breeding birds. Strengthen enforcement of existing restrictions on the hunting of breeding birds [26].
Figure 6: Total number of birds recorded on Dara Island on August in 2003, 2009, 2012 and 2016.
a. The breeding success of the species is sensitive to food availability, predator presence, and human disturbance and oil pollutions in Khore Mosa, for these reasons Khore Mosa complex need to be protected during breeding season.
b. It is recommended to initiate study of bird diversity and population status immediately with periodic monitoring in all islands for their conservation and management.

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Saturday 28 September 2019

Lupine Publishers | Future Trends in Production and Consumption in Textile and Fashion Design: The Fourth Industrial Revolution

Lupine Publishers | Journal of Textile and Fashion Designing


Designers create products, services and systems to fulfill the society’s needs and desires. The adoption of Information Technology (IT) has changed the way designers develop new products. The collaborative work environment is a new paradigm of product design that integrates designers to quickly build, evaluate, optimize and select the best solution to complex problems [1]. In the last 20 years, internet has changed the way people communicate. The first era (1995), internet was an integrated hypermedia, in the second era (2000) internet had a programming media approach, that changed to people’s web service in the third era (2005), and the fourth era - which encompasses nowadays – represents a new level of organization and management of the entire value chain on the products’ life cycle. The Industrie 4.0 or Fourth Industrial Revolution is an integrative cyber-physical system based on modern control systems, embedded software systems and Internet addresses. This industrial revolution is based on improvement of brainwork, especially in engineering activities, and fast decision-making [2].
According to the German Academy of Science and Engineering (Deutsch Akademie der Technnikwissenschaft - Acatech), the Industrie (Industry, in German) 4.0 is the next industrial revolution. The main goal is to improve the value chains among the product´s lifecycle. In this context, the improvement of industrial competitiveness is achieved by organizing and controlling value, new business models and networks creation process [3]. The result of the Fourth Industrial Revolution will be the Smart Factory, where Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) and Internet of Things (IoT) are the key technologies for achieving the production goals. In a smart factory, humans, machines and resources communicate with each other as easily as in a social network [4,5].
The CPS interconnects the physical world with the information technology. CPS are technical systems containing both virtual (cyber) and real (physical) systems. By “cyberizing the physical” and “physicalizing the cyber”, it is possible to specify physical subsystems with software-controlled behavior [3,6]. The IoT is an approach to equip real systems with embedded systems so that they become interconnected in the so-called “smart systems”. The IoT intends to attach technology to devices and to integrate networks with the internet to enable the creation of a global network ubiquitous computing [3].
Kitchin [7] states that data are the key element for our contemporary society. Big Data include information from a multitude of sources, including social media, smart phones, data sharing, sensor-oriented machines and devices for the consumer (wearable computers). The origin of the textile production is closely related to the origin of humanity, and is considered a basic human need. In addition, it is a form of self-expression and sense of belonging that becomes even more important for individuals and social groups [8]. Once this field plays an important role in the Industrial Revolution, the Industrie 4.0 will modify the way clothing are made and consumed.
New management strategies can generate valuable data for product development, online marketing and campaigns. Manufacturing, supply chain and logistics will benefit from the adoption of digital sensors and smart tags that will offer visibility, flexibility and control of product flows. Two production models are examples from those new strategies: smart factory and minifactory. The smart factory integrates stakeholders in a virtual and collaborative environment, while mini-factories are based on ondemand production. The yarn and fabric production processes will be remote monitored using QR Code (Quick Response Code) and RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification).
The steps of cutting and sewing are the biggest problems of textile manufacturing. In this sense, initiatives such as the adoption of artificial intelligence and genetic algorithm, intelligent hybrid systems, robots and fully automated and intelligent lines represent new directions for the textile industry in the context of Industrie 4.0. Smart machines that are able to predict failure or quality problems, and organize their decision-making process and self-optimization are another scenario for the Industrie 4.0 [9].
Internet, Virtual and Augmented Reality will support the buying experience. In addition, 3D scanning will provide consumers the opportunity to scan, build a 3D model and begin ordering custom clothing. Technology tends to be incorporate in fibers, yarn, fabrics and clothing in the form of functional materials, which includes biomedical and electronic textiles. The textile production processes offer the possibility of creating a new generation of materials and products, which interact with different electronic devices. It is important to highlight that the textile industry must follow all these innovations that will not only affect production, but also models of education, business, consumer habits and social and cultural aspects in the coming years.

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Friday 27 September 2019

Lupine Publishers | A Rare Case of Fracture Dislocation of Hip: Is There a Pip kin's Type 5?

Lupine Publishers | Journal of Orthopaedics


Fractures of the femoral head associated with neck fracture and posterior dislocation of the hip are uncommon. Pip kin and later Brumback classified these complex fracture dislocations. However in today's era patient have more atypical injury pattern. We encountered a case which has never been described in literature and cannot be fit into any previously described classification system. We present the radiological details and management.


Modern day accidents not only produce unpredictable but at times unclassifiable injuries. Fractures of the femoral head associated with posterior dislocation of the hip are uncommon as such [1]. Pip kin was the one who sub classified Epstein-Thomas type V fracture-dislocations into four additional subtypes which is still most widely followed [2]. Later Brumback et al. further classified femoral head fractures emphasizing hip stability, with type "B" injuries being unstable [3]. The paucity of these cases is the main constraint to make an algorithm of management. Nevertheless the results depend on early anatomical reduction with the potential threat of osteonecrosis irrespective of approach [4,5]. We hereby describe a case of posterior dislocation of hip which is novel and never been described before. The purpose is to make the fraternity aware of such a case which is unclassifiable even though the management protocol may not be grossly different.


A 52 year old migratory laborer had an accident at civil construction site where he fell down from a height of 20 feet landing first on knees (in kneeling position). He presented to emergency department with severe pain in right groin, and inability to move the left lower limb. On examination the limb was shortened, externally rotated and a bony mass felt in the loin which did not move with the movement of distal thigh. There was severe tingling and decreased sensation in front and lateral aspect of leg and patient was unable to dorsiflex his ankle and toes. His pulsations were normal but he had had transient hypotension with tachycardia which corrected with initial resuscitation. First X ray showed fracture about right hip (Figure 1) mostly a trochanteric fracture but a careful evaluation showed incongruity of head and a "vacant" on super lateral acetabulum. A CT scan was followed wherein the fracture was better delineated. A posterior dislocation of hip with fracture about the trochanter was seen. The head was also fractured and the infra foveal part could be seen lying the acetabulum. A fracture line also ran through the posterior wall of acetabulum which was not more than 25% of the wall and also was undisplaced (Figure 2a- 2c). The patient was admitted and limb placed in Thomas splint and prepared for next morning. No attempts to reduce the dislocation were made.
Figure 1.
Figure 2(a).
Figure 3(a).
Under general anesthesia, the patient was positioned laterally and a Moore's posterior approach was taken guided by dislocation and wall fracture. The gluteus maximus had a huge rent and external rotators were torn, the head was seen indenting the sciatic nerve (bowstring effect) which was contused but intact (Figure 3a). The neck was ostetomised with help of saw at the appropriate level and the calcar was reconstructed using encirclage wiring (Figure 3b). Ethibond was used to suture the greater trochanter. Next 2 temporary K wires were used in the ace tabular walls and reaming done and cement less cup size 52 was fixed augmented with 2 screws (Figure 3c). The K wires were removed after the cup was found stable. The femur was prepared and uncemeneted corail stem size 11 was inserted and size 36x0 femoral head was found stable. C arm was used to confirm the placement of implants (Figure 3d). All soft tissues were closed in best possible way, the hip was stable (Figure 3e). An abductor brace was applied post operatively. Postoperatively day one faradic stimulation was started and patient was allowed side tuning. Check X ray was done which showed a reasonable reconstruction (Figure 4). The patient was allowed sitting with non weight bearing mobilization from day 3 after the pain had subsided. 3 weeks after surgery the patient was discharged when he went back to his home state and never came back for follow up.
Figure 3(b).
Figure 3(c).
Figure 3(d).
Figure 3(e).
Figure 4.


Femoral head fractures in combination with posterior dislocation of the hip are rare presentation. Since first reported by Birkett in 1869 only a small number of cases have been reported world widen [6]. Epstein et al.'s found about 10% in their series. It was Pip kin who subs classified these fractures and various other classifications have been proposed by several authors who claim to be improved version [5, 7]. Pipkin's classification remains most popular and widely accepted. They divide them into 4 types with type 3 having associated ace tabular fractures and type 4 having associated neck fractures. Our case is unique with fracture in the trochanteric area. The trochanteric area has never been described. The ace tabular fracture is also an addition actually a combination pattern of Pipkin's 3 and 4. We believe that there should be a type 5 including a both neck and ace tabular fracture in association of head fracture and a subtype T wherein fracture configuration is in trochanteric region instead of classical neck.
The cases of type 3 or 4 are very sporadic for any protocol to be made. In younger individual attempts to fix the neck fragment, often augmented with vascularised fibular graft has been made in past but long term follow up is lacking. Osteonecrosis is a complication and surgeons have tried different approaches with varying results [8,9]. In our case closed reduction was not possible and moreover the impeding ischemia to sciatic for an early operative intervention. Taking into consideration- a difficult fracture pattern, age, urgency of surgery, peripheral set up hospital and an invincible avascular necrosis; we thought a Total hip arthroplasty (THA) was an appropriate solution than open reduction. Yet the challenges of choosing the right implant from the whole Pandora box of prosthesis implants remained. In surgery, the aim was to stick to principles of bone preservation like calcar reconstruction and thus avoiding the distal fixation stems which were reserved for future revision if a situation arose. A constrained hip would have more advantages in this circumstance of soft tissue rent, but the large head option of 36 was stable enough in our case. We admit management to be debatable with expertise hands. Final outcome does depend on return of sciatic function and proper occupational therapy since he was a laborer. A draw back in our report remains that despite best attempts to persuade the patient to visit nearest ortho clinic; he never turned up but telephonically did tell to having a over the counter sitting job in the village and satisfied with his hip.


The case highlights a rare injury and attempts to give an expansion to the present Pipkin’s classification. Even though the demerit of this report is a lacking follow up X ray and clinical picture, the initial presentation is worth to be noted among the practioners and scholars.

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Thursday 26 September 2019

Lupine Publishers | Incidence of Patella Alta in Anterior Knee Pain- Assessment with Patellar Height Ratio's

Lupine Publishers | Journal of Orthopaedics


Background: Altered patellar alignment is associated with anterior knee pain and multitude of conditions that affect the patellofemoral joint. The study aim was to report the incidence of patella altaand patella baja in indian population with anterior knee pain and to investigate whether the normal limits of the patellar height ratios are applicable in indian population.
Methods: Lateral radiographs of 528 knees with anterior knee pain were performed. Patellar heights were measured to calculate the Insall-Salvati (IS), Insall-Salvati Modified (MIS), Blackburne-Peel (BP), Caton Deschamps (CD) ratios.
Results: The overall mean LT/LP ratio was 1.03 (SD 0.37) with incidence of 16.2% (86/528) for patella alta with Insall-Salvati. Mean MIS was found to be 1.68 (SD 0.018) and incidence of patella alta as per MIS ratio was 14.3% (76/528). Blackburne-Peel and Caton-Deschamps ratios revealed mean ratios of 0.88 (SD 0.15) and .99 (SD 0.16) and the incidence of patella alta 17.8% with BP ratio and 10.2% with CD ratio respectively.
Conclusion: Incidence of patella alta was found to be 17.8% with BP ratio, 16.2% with IS ratio, 14.3% with MIS ratio and 10.2% with CD ratio. The BP and IS ratio were the most sensitive with MIS ratio being the more specific one and CD ratio the least sensitive.


Anterior knee pain remains one of the commonest musculoskeletal complaint with patients, and evaluation of patellar height is done commonly as many conditions are associated with abnormal patellofemoral relationship. The lever arm function of the patella plays an important role in knee extensor mechanism and improves the quadriceps strength by 30-50% [1]. The joint reaction force of the patellofemoral joint varies with the patellar height. A high riding patella or patella alta is associated with patellofemoral malalignment and a reduced patellofemoral contact often leading to patellofemoral pain or instability [2-3]. A low riding patella or patella baja is often associated with limited knee range of motion, patellofemoral arthritis and Osgood Schlatter disease [4]. Numerous methods of patellar height have been described in the literature: Blumensaat [5] Insal-Salvati [6], modified Insal-Salvati [7], Blackburne-peel [8], Caton-Deschamps [9], DeCarvalho [7] and Koshino [10]. These ratios are based on the ratio of the patellar length to the reference point from the tibia. A very few studies have compared the different indices for the patellar height analysis regarding their reproducibility and reliability.
The study objective was to analyse the commonest methods for measuring the patellar height in patients with anterior knee pain and the aim of this study was to report the incidence of patella alta and patella baja and investigate whether the patellar height ratios have significant variations in adult indian population in which sitting on the ground, kneeling, and squatting is common.

Materials and methods

528 lateral x-rays of the knee (212 male and178 females) were collected between the time period August 2017 to February 2018 from patients with anterior knee pain, with difficulty or pain on squatting or sitting. Patients with underlying knee pathologies, knee deformities and knee surgery were excluded. Institutional review board approval was obtained prior to conducting the study. Lateral radiographs of the knee set in 30° of flexion were taken with assistance of a goniometer. 30° of flexion of knee results in better visualization of the tibial insertion. Radiographs were perpendicular to the film and centered on the joint at a distance of 100cm.
Figure 1: IS.
Figure 2: CD.
The measurements were made with the digital imaging software (Radiant diacom viewer) by a single experienced physician. The patella length was measured from the superior articular pole to the inferior non articular pole (Figure 1). The distance from the origin of the patellar tendon at the inferior pole of patella to its insertion on the tibial tubercle was taken as the patellar tendon length. The Insall-Salvati index is calculated as ratio of LT/LP, where LT is the length of the patellar tendon and LP is the patella length (Figure 1). The Blackburne-Peel index (Figure 2) is calculated as PP/PG where PP is the perpendicular height of the distal part of the joint surface of the patella to a line projected anteriorly to the surface of the tibial plateau and PG is the length of the articular surface of patella. The ratio PTG/PG, in which PTG is the distance from the lower edge of the articular surface of the patella to the anterosuperior angle of the tibia, and PG is the length of the articular surface of the patella is calculated as Caton-Deschamps index (Figure 3). The Modified Insall-Salvati index consists of the ratio PT/PG, wherein PT is the distance from the lower edge of the joint surface of the patella to the insertion of the posterior or deep surface of the patellar tendon in the tibial tubercle, and PG is the length of the joint surface of the patella (Figure 4).
Figure 3: BP.
Figure 4: MIS.
Table 1.
The overall mean LT/LP ratio was 1.02 (SD 0.37). Comparison between genders revealed that the mean LT/LP ratio was higher in males than females with a mean of 1.04 (SD 0.29) and 1.01 (SD 0.46), respectively (Table 1 & 2). Using criteria of defining abnormal patellar position (1.00±20%) based on Insall's study, the overall incidence was 16.2% (86/528) for patella alta (Tables 3 & 4). The mean PT/PG ratio was 1.68 (SD 0.018). The MIS ratio was higher in males with mean of 1.70(SD 0.29) than females with a mean of 1.66 (SD 0.29). The incidences of patella alta as per MIS ratio were 14.3% (76/528). Blackburne -Peel and Caton- Deschamps ratios revealed mean ratios of 0.88 (SD 0.15) and .99 (SD 0.16). Males were found to have a higher mean in both the ratios compared to the females (BP ratio: 0.89, SD 0.12 and CD ratio: 1.0, SD 0.18 in males and BP ratio: 0.88, SD 0.05 and CD ratio: 0.98, SD 0.06 in females). The incidence of patella alta were 17.8% and 36% with BP ratio and CD ratio respectively.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Table 4.


Vast majority of the studies in literature are often quoted with the data obtained from the Caucasian population. There are none, if at all few studies of patellar height being done in Asian population. There are morphological changes in patella of the Caucasian and the Asian population which make the patellar height ratios even more significant. The present study is an observational study done with aim of assessing the patellar alignment in anterior knee pain patients.
The position of the patella has an important role on patellofemoral function. Abnormalities in patella position have thus been associated with anterior knee pain and many extensor mechanism disorders. While many techniques have been developed to measure patellar position such as the Blacburne's ratio, the Insall Salvati ratio still remains one of the most popular, largely because it is easy to use and remember [7,8] .Despite its popularity, recent studies have suggested that the current normal ranges should be extended, as the ratios may not be applied to ethnicities outside western regions [11,12].
The Insall-Salvati (IS) method uses the length of the patellar ligament in relation to the length of the patella6. The patellar morphology and morphological differences in the anterior tuberosity of the tibia (ATT) directly affect the measurements made using this method. Grelsamer and Meadows [7] developed the modified Insall-Salvati (ISM) method based on the length of the joint surface. Difficulty in identifying this parameter is considered to be the main measurement bias. The Modified Insall -Salvati ratio has its advantages over the IS ratio that it can efficiently find out the patella alta in patients with small patellar articular surface which is not taken into account in IS ratio (Figure 5). Digital radiography seems not to present greater details for this anatomical reference. The Blackburne-Peel (BP) method exchanges the reference point of the ATT for the joint surface of the tibial plateau, while keeping the joint surface of the patella. Although Berg et al. [13] found that this was the most accurate and reproducible method in conjunction with the IS index, and Seil et al. [13] ranked it as the second most reproducible method in conjunction with the IS index, we did not obtain similar results in our analysis, such that it was only better than the ISM index. Lack of definition of the reference line of the tibial plateau, such as which condyle to use as the reference, or whether this line runs parallel to the joint surface or perpendicular to the long axis of the tibia, contributes towards lower concordance with this method. The method of Caton et al. [2], which uses the joint surface of the patella and the angle of the tibial plateau as references, also presents difficulty regarding identification of the joint surface, as well as presenting a certain amount of variability in defining the angle of the tibial plateau. Despite these factors, this method was the one that showed greatest concordance in the study by Seil et al. [13].
Figure 5.
The mean IS ratio was 1.02(SD 0.37) with the incidence of patella alta being 16.2%. The incidence of patella alta calculated by height ratios was found to be lesser than that of the published literature. Out of the ratios analysed, it ws found out that the IS ratio and BP ratio had the highest sensitivity for patella alta wherein the CD ratio had the lowest sensitivity. The difficulty in analysing the anatomy of the proximal tibia may be attributed to the decreased sensitivity of CD ratio. MIS ratio is helpful in situations where in the patellar articular length is decreased compared to that of the length of patella (Figure 5). The study had the most sensitive ratio as BP ratio followed with IS ratio, MIS ratio and lastly CD ratio which is comparable to the study by Seil et al. [13]. It was interesting to note that, patella baja were present in a proportion of patients with knee pain signifying the requirement of understanding the knee biomechanics and further evaluation of the patellofemoral joint for the articular cartilage. Patella alta was found to have a incidence of 16.2% as per Insall- Salvati ratio and needs to be kept in mind in paients with anterior knee pain.

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Wednesday 25 September 2019

A Case Study of an Environmental Project Evaluation in a Major Industrial Installation in the Greater Asopos River Area in Greece

Lupine Publishers- Environmental and Soil Science


This paper presents carried out work on the realization path, mode selection, some of the results and the self-evaluation of Environmental Protection Processes as applied in a Major Industrial Site, namely the self-evaluation of Preliminary Orientation Environmental Liability Assessment Study (POELS). The ultimate goal of this work is to illustrate the role of the self-evaluation of Environmental Protection Processes in Environmental Liability issues in order to identify/assess/evaluate major risks at the facility and risk mitigation measures. As a general rule of thumb, discovery of pollution, a pollution condition or a pollution event is typically the trigger for an environmental loss or claim. Pollution is generally attributed to the emission of hazardous or nonhazardous wastes (air pollutants, liquid and solid wastes), and categorized as one of the following occurrences:
a) Current Operations-New Conditions,
b) Sudden and Accidental Releases,
c) Gradual releases,
d) Pre-existing conditions,
e) On-Site Pollution, and
f) Off-site Pollution.
The POELS methodology is in compliance with the Greek and European Union regulations and environmental law specific to the Asopos River Basin Area. Its objectives were to identify major risks at the facility and risk mitigation measures, where risk levels are unacceptable. The Industrial installation site, process characteristics and emissions inventory coupled with industry measurements and current legislation were used as input data to the POELS analysis. Overall, the evaluation approach and relevant review found that the First-time POELS offered a good quality induction programme for first-time study related to Environmental Liability legislative needs.


One of the most important factors driving an interest in environmental insurance and risk management in Europe is the European Union Environmental Liability Directive (ELD) 2004/35/CE. This is EU-wide legislation that establishes a common framework for the prevention and remedying of environmental damage at a reasonable cost to society. The implementing legislation for the ELD only became effective in 2007 (2009 in Greece), and so its impact on environmental events in member states is only beginning to show. To prevent damage the ELD also requires operators to proactively manage any damage they have, or may, cause. If there is an imminent threat of environmental damage, an operator must carry out preventative measures without delay, and is legally required to notify the relevant competent authority, if measures fail to dispel the threat. This paper presents some of the results and the self-evaluation of a POELS of a full industrial scale manufacturing installation located relatively close to the city of Athens. The surface soil has a high content in heavy metals, and the wells of the region have a high content of heavy metals and particularly hexavalent Chromium sometimes over the existing standard of 50ppb for potable water. Recent legislation sets up strict environmental standards for the Area. The ultimate goal of this work is to illustrate the role of the POELS in order to identify (at a preliminary level) major risks at the facility and risk mitigation measures, where risk levels are unacceptable, and to enhance its ability to assess the relevant environmental risks in order to achieve even more demanding environmental targets having in mind ELD obligations and to present a self-evaluation methodology for assessing the POELS itself.

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Tuesday 24 September 2019

Effect of Interaction Between Ag Nanoparticles and Salinity on Germination Stages of Lathyrus Sativus L.

Lupine Publishers- Environmental and Soil Science


The aim of the study was to effect of interaction between Ag nanoparticles and salinity on Germination Stages of Lathyrus Sativus L. Treatments included in the study were viz. To 3 levels of salinity (0 as control, 8 and 16 dS/m NaCl), 8 and 16 dS/m and four levels of silver nanoparticles (0, 5, 10 and 15 ppm) on grass pea seed were tested. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), on the seed germination factors, root and shoot length (RL and SL) and proline content of grass pea Survival under Salinity Levels. Results showed a significant reduction in growth and development indices due to the salinity stress. The salt stress impaired the germination factors of grass pea seedlings. The application of Ag in combination improved the germination percentage, shoot and root length, seedling fresh weight and seedling dry weight and seedling dry contents of grass pea seedlings under stressed conditions. The results suggest that Ag nanoparticles enhancement may be important for osmotic adjustment in grass pea under salinity stress and application of Ag mitigated the adverse effect of salinity and toxic effects of salinity stress on grass pea seedlings.


High salinity is a common abiotic stress factor that causes a significant reduction in growth. Germination and seedling growth are reduced in saline soils with varying responses for species and cultivars [1]. Soil saltiness may impact the germination of seeds either by causing an osmotic potential outside to the seed averting water uptake, or the poisonous effects of Na+ and Cl− ions on germinating seed [2]. Salt and osmotic stresses are responsible for both inhibition or delayed seed germination and seedling establishment [3]. The majority of our present-day crops are adversely affected by salinity stress [4]. NaCl causes extensive oxidative damage in different legumes, resulting in significant reduction of different growth parameters, seed nutritional quality, and nodulation [5,6]. To mitigate and repair damages triggered by oxidative stress, plants evolved a series of both enzymatic as well as a non-enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanism. Ascorbate and carotenoids are two important non-enzymatic defenses against salinity, whereas proline is the most debated osmoregulatory substances under stress [7].
Lathyrus Sativus L. (Grass pea) is an annual pulse crop belonging to the Fabaceae family and Vicieae tribe [8]. Grass pea has a long history in agriculture. The crop is an excellent fodder with its reliable yield and high protein content. This plant is also commonly grown for animal feed and as forage. The grass pea is endowed with many properties that combine to make it an attractive food crop in drought-stricken, rain-fed areas where soil quality is poor and extreme environmental conditions prevail [9]. Despite its tolerance to drought it is not affected by excessive rainfall and can be grown on land subject to flooding [10,11]. Compared to other legumes, it is also resistant to many insect pests [12-15]. Nanoparticles (NPs) are wide class of materials that include particulate substances, which have one dimension less than 100 nm at least [16]. The importance of these materials realized when researchers found that size can influence the physiochemical properties of a substance e.g. the optical properties [17]. NPs with different composition, size, and concentration, physical/ chemical properties have been reported to influence growth and development of various plant species with both positive and negative effects [18]. Silver nanoparticles have been implicated in agriculture for improving crops. There are many reports indicating that appropriate concentrations of AgNPs play an important role in plant growth [19,20]. The application of Nano silver during germination process may enhance germination traits, plant growth and resistance to salinity conditions in basil seedlings [21]. The use of Silver Nanoparticle on Fenugreek Seed Germination under Salinity Levels is a recent practice studied [22]. Nanomaterials have also been used for various fundamental and practical applications [23]. Although the potential of AgNPs in improving salinity resistance has been reported in several plant species [24,25], its role in the alleviation of salinity effect and related mechanisms is still unknown. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to study the effect of Silver Nanoparticles on salt tolerance in Lathyrus Sativus L.

Material and Methods

In order to investigate salinity stress on Lathyrus Sativus L. germination indices, an experiment was carried out in Iran from April to Juan 2017 at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, to creation salinity, sodium chloride at the levels of 8 dS/m, 15 dS/m and 0 (as control), four levels of silver nanoparticles (0, 5, 10 and 15 ppm) on Grass pea were tested. The Ag NPs were obtained from US Research Nanomaterial’s, Inc. Transmission electron microscopy (ТЕМ) images of silver nanoparticles with diameters of 20 nm, shown in Figure 1. Seeds of Lathyrus Sativus L. where from seed bank of Research Center for Plant Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. These all were washed with deionized water. Seeds were sterilized in a 5% sodium hypochlorite solution for 10 minutes [26], rinsed through with deionized water several times. Their germination was conducted on water porous paper support in Petri dishes (25 seed per dish) at the controlled temperature of 25 ± 1°C. After labeling the Petri dishes, seed were established between two Whatman No. 2 in Petri dishes. Silver nanoparticles in different concentration silver nanoparticles (0, 5, 10 and 15ppm) were prepared directly in deionized water and dispersed by ultrasonic vibration for one hour. Each concentration was prepared in three replicates. Every other day supply with 0.5 ml silver nanoparticles per every test plantlet was carried out for 21 days along with control. Germination counts were recorded at 2 days’ intervals for 21 days after sowing and the seedlings were allowed to grow. The germination percentages of the seeds were finally determined for each of the treatments. After 21 days of growth, the shoot and root lengths were long enough to measure using a ruler. The controlled sets for germinations were also carried out at the same time along with treated seeds (Figure 2).
Figure 1: Silver Nanopowder, Coated with ~0.2wt% PVP (Poly Viny Pyrrolidone) surfactant for low oxygen content and easy dispersing. True density: 10.5 g/cm3 Purity: 99.99% APS: 20 nm SSA: ~18-22 m2/g Color: black, Morphology: spherical.
Figure 2: Effect of Ag Nanoparticles on Germination Stages of Lathyrus Sativus L. in Salinity level( 8 dS/m NaCl).

Parameters Measured in this Study were:

A. Germination Stages
Total germination percentage (GT) was calculated as Gt = (n/N ×100), where n = total number of germinated seeds (normal and abnormal) at the end of the experiment and N = total number of seeds used for the germination test.
B. Germination Speed Index (GSI)
Conducted concomitantly with the germination test, with a daily calculation of the number of seeds that presented protrusion of primary root with length ≥2 millimeter, continuously at the same time amid the trial. The germination speed index was calculated by Maguire formula [27]: aguire formula (1962):
GSI = seedlings’ germination speed index;
G = number of seeds germinated each day;
N = number of days elapsed from the seeding until the last count.

Root and Shoot Length

Root length was taken from the point below the hypocotyls to the end of the tip of the root. Shoot length was measured from the base of the root- hypocotyl transition zone up to the base of the cotyledons. The root and shoot length were measured with the help of a thread and scale.

Seedling Vigour Index

The seedling vigor index was determined by using the formula given by Abdul baki and Anderson [28].

Fresh and Dry mass

The fresh mass was quantified through weighing on precision scale, and the dry mass was determined through weighing on a precision scale after permanence of the material in a kiln with air forced circulation, at a temperature of 70°C, until indelible weight. At the ending of the experiment, At the end of the experiment, radical and plumule length and fresh weight measured. Plants were placed in the oven at 70°C for 48 h and weighted with sensitive scale.

Proline Contents

Proline was determined spectrophotometrically following the ninhydrin method described, using L-proline as a standard [29]. Approximately 300 mg of dry tissue was homogenized in 10ml of 3% (w/v) aqueous sulphosalicylic acid and filtered. To 2ml of the filtrate, 2ml of acid ninhydrin was added, followed by the addition of 2ml of glacial acetic acid and boiling for 60 min. The mixture was extracted with toluene, and the free proline was quantified spectrophotometrically at 520nm from the organic phase using a spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis each treatment was conducted, and the results were presented as mean ± SD (standard deviation). The results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with used Minitab Version 16.

Results and Discussion

The present study showed clearly that salinity had a negative effect on the yield and its components of grass pea. It is well known that seed germination provides a suitable foundation for plant growth, development, and yield [30]. Increased salt concentration caused a decrease in germination percent (Table 1). Seed germination decreased as the doses increased. The Strong reduction in germination (-47%) was observed mainly at the highest level of salt concentration as compared to control treatment. Delayed germination causes increased irrigation cost and irregular and weak seedling growth in the establishment of legume crops. Relevant results were reported by Gunjaca and Sarcevic [31] and Almansouri et al. [32]. They reported that increasing osmotic potential decreased water uptake and slow down germination time. The average time of germination increases with increasing levels of salinity. In view of mean germination time, there was a considerable increase in this character at 0 (as control), 8 and 16 DS/m salinity levels as compared to the others. Emergence was significantly affected by salinity levels. Moreover, many researchers have reported developmental delay of seed germination at high salinity [33]. The germination rate decreased as salt concentration increased to a 16 dS/m and delayed for the high salt dosage (Table 1). Since higher salinity limited water absorption, it has prevented nutrient assimilation, as a result, germination rate declined with increasing salinity. The findings from this study were like to the findings of Kaydan and Yagmur [34] and Akhtar and Hussain [35].
Table 1: The interaction effect of NaCl and AgNPs on Germination Speed Index.
Table 2: Analysis of variance of the measured traits.
Shoot fresh weight was significantly influenced (P<0.05) by salinity levels. The highest shoot fresh weight was obtained from 0dSm salinity level while the lowest weight was at 16dSm. Shoot fresh weight significantly decreased as salinity level increased above 8dSm (Table 2). Salinity stress significantly (P<0.05) affected shoot dry weight as the salt concentration dosage increased. Shoot dry weight significantly decreased in salt levels over 8dSm. When the salinity level was raised above, the proline content increased in grass pea. Culturing excised roots has demonstrated to be a really great test show for the early detection of tolerance to abiotic stresses such as saltiness [36-38].
Proline was studied in numerous works dealing with plant selection against abiotic stresses such as dry and salinity [39,40], and it may play a defensive part against the osmotic potential produced by salt [41,42]. The proline substance of the expanded with the NaCl concentration of the culture medium. At 16 dS/m NaCl, the proline concentration appeared a huge increment in reaction to salt stress, although the activity of the roots at this concentration was negligible, with no grateful longitudinal development. Proline, which happens broadly in higher plants and collects in bigger sums than other amino acids [43], regulates the aggregation of useable N. Proline collection normally occurs within the cytosol where it contributes significantly to the cytoplasmic osmotic alteration [44]. It is osmotically very active and contributes to membrane stability and mitigates the impact of on NaCl cell membrane disturbance [45]. In the present experiment application of Ag NPs enhanced seed potential by increasing the characteristics of seed germination (Tables 1 & 2). The results showed that the impact of Ag NPs was significant on germination percentage in P≤0. 05. The results about of this test appeared that utilization of Ag NPs nanoparticles can increment the germination in grass pea. Seed germination results indicate that Ag Nanoparticles at their lower concentrations advanced seed germination and early seedling growth in grass pea, anyway at higher concentration showed slight antagonistic impacts. Parameters of seed germination were expanded with increasing levels of Ag NPs up to 10 ppm. Among the treatments, application of 10 ppm of Ag NPs proved best by giving the highest values for percent seed germination, germination rate and germination mean time. It is well watched that the exogenous application of Ag NPs decreased the reduction of germination resulted from salt treatments. In the interim, the control treatments of salt and Ag nanoparticles gave the tallest plants contrasted with the other studied treatments. Darvishzadeh et al. [21] found that the utilization of Ag Nano particles at the concentration of 40 prompted the increases in germination percentage and improved the resistance to salinity conditions in basil. The proline content increased with increasing severity of salinity stress. Additionally, proline content significantly (P.0.01) increased when silver nanoparticles were applied in connected in serious saline stress in comparison without silver nanoparticles (Figure 3).
Figure 3: Effect of interaction between ag nanoparticles and salinity on germination stages of Lathyrus Sativus L. a - Main effects plot for Root length (mm); b - Main effects plot for dry weight of shoot and root (gr); c - Interaction Plot for fresh weight of shoot and root (gr); d - Interaction Plot for dry weight of shoot and root (gr); e - Interaction Plot for Proline (mg/gr).


Salt stress through enhancement of osmotic pressure leads to the decrease of germination percentage, germination rate, germination index and an increment in mean germination time of Lathyrus sativus seeds. For overcoming the negative impacts of salinity on the plant growth and yield can be to attempt to new strategies. The dry and fresh weight of seedlings diminished as seedling length declined with increasing salinity levels since root number, shoot number, root length and shoot length decreased essentially. Results demonstrate that Ag NPs at lower concentration enhances seed germination, promptness index, and seedling growth. The positive effect of Ag on physiological properties was in conditions that the plant grew under salt stress was more increasingly exceptional in examination with the conditions that plant grown under normal conditions. The results of this study showed that Ag can be involved in the metabolic or physiological activity in higher plants exposed to abiotic stresses.

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