Tuesday 28 February 2023

Lupine Publishers| Affordability Issues of Biotech Drugs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs)

  Lupine Publishers| Journal of Drug Designing & Intellectual Properties


According to World Bank publication Disease Control Priorities: Improving Health and Reducing Poverty (3rd edition, 2017), nearly 20% total health expenditure globally came from out-of-pocket payments in 2014. The same was nearly 40% total health expenditure for low-income countries, 56% for lower-middle-income countries, and 30% for upper-middle-income countries (WHO, 2016). One third of the world’s population lacks timely access to quality-assured medicines while estimates indicate that at least 10% of medicine in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are substandard or falsified, costing approximately US$ 31 billion annually (Global Health, 2018). Surprisingly, 80% of global cardiovascular deaths occur in LMICs which is (partly) due to the lack of access to healthcare including skilled human resources, equipped facilities and medicines (Global status report on noncommunicable diseases, WHO, 2010). Price of drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics is a major burden in LMICs round the globe. Cost of biotech drugs are even higher due to high cost incurred by the pharmaceutical companies for clinical trial. Biotech drugs have completely changed the management of several diseases, including cancer and autoimmune diseases. Although essential but their affordability is still a burning issue, especially in LMICs.

Keywords: LMICs; Out-of-pocket expenditure; Cancer treatments; Biotech drugs; Pharmaceutical patents; Biosimilars

Abbreviations: PIVI: Partnership for Influenza Vaccine Introduction; NITAGs: National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups; OOP: Out-of-pocket; LMICs: Low-and Middle-Income Countries; RCT: Randomized Control Trial; HPV: Human Papillomavirus; GDP: Gross Domestic Product; EML: Essential Medicine List; R&D: Research and Development; BRICS countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa; NCDs: Non-communicable diseases; CVDs: Cardiovascular Diseases

Mini Review

(Figure 1) Pharmaceutical companies invest in the development and testing of their drugs including by funding clinical trials. Furthermore, pharmaceutical companies also spend a large amount of money on advertising. For instance, in 2016 US$6.7 billion was spent on direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising alone in the USA [1]. Worldwide spending on medicines reached $1.2 trillion in 2018 and will exceed $1.5 trillion by 2023, according to “The Global Use of Medicine in 2019 and Outlook to 2023” [2,3]. Although, access to essential medicines is problematic for one third of all persons worldwide [4]. Limited access to essential medicines (EMs) for treating chronic diseases is a major challenge in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) [4,5]. Average public sector availability of even low-cost generic medicines ranges from 30% to 55% across 36 LMICs [6]. Price of drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics is a major burden in 105 middle income countries round the globe, comprising of 70% of the world population, 75% of the poor [7]. While public hospitals offer free or subsidized treatment including essential medicines, the high patient caseloads, underfunding and inefficient medicine distribution systems are barriers to consistent service provision [8]. Moreover, 90% of the population in developing countries purchase medicines through out-of-pocket (OOP) payments [7]. Poor availability of medicines in the public sector has pushed up household OOP expenditure, making them the largest household expenditure item after food [9]. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) which, according to WHO are now the world’s biggest killers. Over 36 million people die annually (63% of global deaths) from NCDs, mainly CVDs, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. Of these, 80% occur in LMICs [10]. So, The WHO has set a minimum of 80% as target availability of medicines for both communicable and non-communicable diseases in all countries [11]. But Pharmaceutical companies have a substantial desire in developing drugs for chronic diseases and cancer treatments, not only because of high prevalence, but also because these drugs are often used in long term [12]. Pharmaceutical patents maintain drug prices well above the cost of production and can restrict access to needed medicines [13]. Biotech drugs have completely changed the management of several diseases, including cancer and autoimmune diseases such as, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease [14]. The high cost of biotech medications (target a gene or protein and typically are injected or infused, associated with treating a chronic condition) often requires significant OOP expenditures [15,16]. Some studies say that pharmaceutical companies price drugs monopolistically, protected by patent rights, while others believe that the high prices for orphan drugs simply allow drug R&D and production costs. However, the global orphan drug market is estimated to reach US $209 billion by 2022 accounting for 21.4% of total branded prescription drug sales [17]. According to the Tufts Center for Drug Development, it costs, on average, $100 million in 1975, around $900 million before 2004 and 1.3 billion after 2005 to develop a new drug and bring it to market [18,19]. While, Scavone et.al, 2019 reported that entire time that passes from the R&D phase until the drug’s marketing approval can last up to 15 years, and it is characterized by extremely high costs, usually exceeding $1.2 billion [20]. Gouglas et.al, 2018 estimated a minimum of $2·8– 3·7 billion ($1·2 billion–$8·4 billion range) for one vaccine through to the end of phase 2a among 11 epidemic infectious diseases [21]. Apart from the traditional design of RCT, in recent years further study designs, including umbrella, basket and platform trials, were developed and applied to new therapies, especially in the area of oncology research [22]. Tay-Teo et.al, 2019 stated the most commonly accepted estimates of R&D costs, including cancer drugs, are between $200 million and $2.9 billion, after adjustments for the probability of failure and opportunity costs [23]. Genomic studies conducted in the past two decades identified the molecular drivers of certain cancers and led to the advent of targeted therapies as an important additional pillar of the cancer therapy armamentarium [24]. According to the Global Oncology Trend Report, global spending on cancer medications rose from $75 billion in 2010 to $100 billion in 2014, 10.3% rise in spending. Asia accounts for 60% of the world population and 50% of the global burden of cancer [25]. There are over 100 types of cancers, located in different organs and sub-tissues and originating from different cell types. Some cancer types (e.g., colon, breast, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma) contain even more specific classifications based on their molecular subtypes. Despite this complexity and variability, most types of cancer are treated with the same generic therapies [26]. Critics claim that prices of innovative drugs are excessive and argue that lowering prices will not harm the flourishing innovation. On the opposite end, the pharmaceutical industry insists that restrictive pricing policies will have a detrimental impact on their ability to generate innovation [27]. During 2017, PIVI worked with its country partners and the WHO regional and local offices to assess NITAGs strengthening needs and to provide technical assistance in 7 LMICs (Laos Peoples Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Vietnam, Armenia, Côte d’Ivoire; Moldova and the Republic of Georgia) [28]. In Europe, total cancer drug sales more than doubled between 2005 and 2014, increasing from €8.0 billion to €19.8 billion [29]. Biologics were estimated to account for US$289 billion pharmaceutical sales in 2014 and are projected to reach US$445 billion in 2019. It is also anticipated that biologics’ share of global prescription and OTC pharmaceutical sales will rise to 26% by 2019 [30]. It is projected that new cases of cancer will increase from about 14 million in 2012 to 22 million in 2030, with most cases in LMICs located in Africa, Asia and Latin America [31]. The projected increase in cancer incidence is predicted to be most significant in LMICs in Asia. In these countries, over 60% of the total healthcare expenditure comes from private resources, of which more than 80% is direct OOP payments, with catastrophic results for most families in these countries [25]. In India alone, as many as 63 million people are forced into poverty every year, owing to catastrophic health expenses, the majority of which are OOP payments for medicines [32]. Genetic predisposition, increasing life expectancy, urbanization, mechanization, inadequate health services and rapid economic development fueling sedentariness and changing dietary patterns are contributing to rising chronic disease burden in the South Asian region [33]. Rijal et.al, 2018 reported that Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, which are mostly LMICs with regional GDP per capita 1640 USD and home to a quarter of world population [34]. According to Giri et.al, 2018 breast cancer was the most prevalent cancer and fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in Asia [35]. Siegel et.al, 2019 states mortality rates in the poorest counties were 2-fold higher than most affluent counties for cervical cancer and 40% higher for male lung and liver cancers during 2012-2016 [36]. One-third of the world cervical cancer burden is endured in India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka. High-risk HPV types were found in 97% of cervical cancers, and HPV-16 and 18 were found in 80% of cancers in India [37]. Stomach cancer (9·0%), breast cancer (8·2%), lung cancer (7·5%), lip and oral cavity cancer (7·2%), pharynx cancer other than nasopharynx (6·8%), colon and rectum cancer (5·8%), leukemia (5·2%), and cervical cancer (5·2%) are the leading types of cancer in India in 2016 [38]. India has been well known in the global oncology community as the country where cancer drug prices are cheaper compared to other countries. For instance, the 4-weekly cost of trastuzumab was $2761 in India versus $6849 in the US [39]. It was indeed heartening to see that India paid $19000 for a 4-week course of bevacizumab (based on purchasing power parity) while Australia paid only $543 [40]. In the US, individuals diagnosed with cancer are 2.7 times more likely to declare bankruptcy, than individuals without cancer [41]. Saqib et.al, 2018 stated that patients in LMICs find it difficult to afford non-biologics and their treatment with new therapeutic agents like biologic is almost impossible. Therefore, the management of cancer is seriously affected by the availability and affordability of anticancer agents [42]. Due to lack of information on comparative drug prices and quality, it is difficult for physicians to prescribe the most economical treatment. Lack of information on quality, nonavailability and conflicts of interest are also responsible for physicians not prescribing the least expensive medication. The difference in cost between the various brands of the same drug varies from 2- fold to more than 100-fold in India [43]. Bhutan (13%), Maldives (5%) and Timor-Leste (5%) – are small countries with challenging geographies that lack the capacity for local pharmaceutical production. They may also use alternative strategies, such as sending patients with cancer for treatment abroad [26]. Many examples of high drug prices exist and are frequently discussed in the media. One often mentioned example is imatinib (brand name Gleevec®), a drug for chronic myeloid leukemia, which tripled in cost after the US FDA allowed for a new indication. Novartis raised its price from $31,930 in 2005 to $118,000 per year in 2015 despite a huge increase in the volumes sold [44]. The 19th revision of the WHO EML in 2015 added 16 essential cancer drugs, including three high-cost medicines, imatinib, rituximab and trastuzumab, and therefore improving equitable access to innovative treatments for cancer that are widely unavailable in low-resource settings [45]. India is one of the top global funders of R&D into neglected diseases, according to Thomas et.al, 2019. Nearly 12% of drug, diagnostic, and vaccine candidates for neglected diseases in the R&D pipeline are from India [46]. Most South Asian countries have well laid out regulatory pathways for biosimilar approval. While no biosimilar insulin is approved in USA as of date August 2015, the European Medicines Agency and Japanese drug regulatory authorities have given approval to only one insulin-a biosimilar insulin glargine produced by Eli Lilly [47]. One of the most significant safety concerns with biosimilars is the potential risk of immune-based adverse reactions. Because of their molecular size, biologics can directly induce anti-drug antibodies which may have significant consequences for both safety and efficacy [48]. As manufacturers of biosimilar products do not have access to the cell line and technique of reference product, the manufacturing process may change slightly, but this may have tremendous impact on the biological function of the product, including immunogenicity, potentially affecting the safety and efficacy profile [49]. Also, the costs of drug distribution in India are 2 to 3 times greater than in the United States or the European Union, despite vastly lower labor costs. Their staff are not required to show skills in pharmaceutical warehousing and management, often with disastrous consequences [50]. The monthly drug prices were the highest in the U.S and lowest in India. However, despite having the lowest drug prices, drugs were the least affordable (affordability estimated as drug prices divided by GDP per capita or average salary) in India [39,40]. Those drugs that ensure cure should be given the first priority. The governments and policy makers in LMICs should prioritize access to highly effective biotech drugs used in curative setting and limit spending on costly but ineffective or minimally effective drugs used in palliative setting. Inter collaborations between the BRICS countries like Brazil, China and India need to set the pace and create more incentives to increase local production of drugs with LMICs [51]. There are various interventions or changes in policies advised that can help in lowering the cost of biotech drugs like breaking the monopoly in drug manufacturers, changing the regulatory guidelines by government agencies in favor of those companies which manufacture cheaper drugs and making the new drug approvals faster, increasing the cost effectiveness ratio of drugs, achieving a balance between physician autonomy in prescribing biotech drugs and costs incurred by patients, encouraging non-profit generic companies which manufacture biotech drugs by giving them tax incentives and other measures, value based reimbursement by medical insurance companies.

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Lupine Publishes| Online and Brick-and-Mortar Strategy in Fashion Industry: Co-Existence or Cannibalization?

  Lupine Publishers| Journal of Textile and Fashion Designing


Since the 1990s the Internet affected different industries and forced firms to change their business models and pushed toward the adoption of new strategies. The same happened in fashion industry, where e-commerce, personal computers, and smartphones created the opportunity for fashion firms to be closer to their customers, adopting CRM, and multichannel or omnichannel strategies. The main aim of this study is to analyze the potential conflicting presence of online and brick-and-mortar strategies in the fashion industry. We used a representative sample of 19 large firms in Europe, operating in the retailing brand fashion industry. Our data analysis shows how leading firms, facing a disruptive technology (the emergence of e-commerce), have been able to absorb it, in a context of co-existence between online and brick-and-mortar strategies.

Keywords:Innovation; Fashion Industry; Brick-and-Mortar; Commerce Online; Business Model


Since the 1990s, many firms working in retailing adopted innovations spurred from Internet, such as e-commerce, to better service their customers. After a while, the entire fashion industry started using the online channel, either as exclusive channel or adopting multichannel or ominchannel strategies. Scholars focused on the adoption of e-commerce in fashion, studying the market structure [1-3], the use of the Internet, and the development of multichannel or omichannel selling modes [4-7]. Analyzing the changes occurred in the retailing industry, they showed the emergence of new business models among firms operating in the market [6,8-11].

The aim of this work is to provide some evidence about the effect of a disruptive technology like e-commerce, showing that this is still not cannibalizing the market of fashion. In section 2 we will shortly present the main research questions, in section 3 we will go through a short literature review. In section 4 we will present the methodology adopted. In section 5 we will present and discuss our data, and, finally, in section 6 we will conclude this paper.

The Aim of this Study and the Main Research Questions

The aim of this study is to show the disruptive effect of the entry of new technologies (e-commerce) in the fashion industry. Are we assisting to the failure of the main incumbents? Are firms operating in the fashion market suffering because of the presence of the e-commerce? Are existing large incumbents in the fashion industry able to absorb the new technology? All these questions can be summarized just in one main research question: do we have a cannibalization process between online and brick-and-mortar business models? In order to provide an answer, we collected data about the international investments made by a sample of 19 large fashion retailing firms operating in Europe.

Literature Review

Christensen, in his book “The innovators dilemma” [13], used the term disruptive technologies to explain why companies, that stay at the top of their industry, fail when they face a technological change. He provided evidence about the fact that it is costly for existing firms to adopt a new innovation and/or change the market. In contrast, Tripsas [14], using the history of the typesetter industry, provided some evidence about the fact that incumbents may survive, being able to absorb the new technology, due to their technical capabilities in learning from the new technology and in developing complementary assets. Many scholars agree on the fact that the introduction of radical and breakthrough innovations tends to stimulate the change of the incumbent business models [15-25]. Today, there is a general consensus on the idea that the transformation of a firm’s business model is crucial for firms’ renewal [26].

During the 1990s, in fashion retail, we saw the rise of new internet-based firms [27], but simultaneously a large reorganization of the firms’ value chains occurred. Increasingly, due to the complexity of ICT adoption, users developed an unpredictable pattern of hybrid forms [28-31]. Thus, nowadays, we may observe not only the rise of new internet-based firms (e.g. the German Zalando or the French Vent-Privée), but also new “reorganized” traditional fashion brand retailers [9-12]. Socrescu et al. [6] and Vorhoef et al. [8] have underlined how ICT allowed firms to be closer to their customers, increasing brand awareness and customers’ loyalty [4-7]. The use of the multichannels modality, allowed firms to develop new business models, integrating in their operative activity the online business, selling on-line [4,32,33] through ample catalogues and through the shops (where on-line orders could be collected). In more recent years, the “omni-channel” opportunity become more significant, thanks to the use of mobile apps linked to different devices: smartphones, tablets, and other devices [34-36].

An interesting contribution to the explanation why “hybrid” business model (on-line and offline) are successful has been provided by Bernstein et al. [24]: firms do not benefit very much from online sales (in terms of profits’ growth), but consumers do; thus, traditional retailers have to adopt the online new commercial channels for strategic purposes.


Starting from information available in the FDI Markets database, provided by the Financial Times Group, which collect individual firm FDI operations, we selected a sample of the largest retailers firms, operating the in fashion retail industry in Europe, sampling both luxury and low costs large retailers. The unit of analysis is the FDI specific investment. Then, using Thomson Reuters database, we add the information on yearly sales, and number of shops opened and closed in the world. Where some data where incomplete, we filled the gap looking at the annual financial report. We included in our sample 19 large retailers. When it was possible, we unbundle data for the specific brand of the group. The period analyzed was 2008-2016.

Data Analysis

Table 1: List of fashion retailers by sales (2008 - 2016) millions of dollars.


n.d. : no data are available

*Data available on Thomson Reuters

**Data from FDI Markets Database

***Inditex group

Source: authors’ elaboration on Thomson Reuters data

Table 1 shows the list of the largest investing company and the revenues expressed in millions of US dollar. The largest firms analyzed are Louis Vuitton (luxury segment), Nike, H&M, Adidas and Zara. Their sales oscillate from 40 billion to 17 billion. The typical firm in the luxury market is smaller with sales ranking from 4 to 2 billion (Prada, Hugo Boss, and Michel Kors). All firms, in this period, showed an increasing growth trend, with the exception of Geox. The biggest firms in terms of number of shops are H&M (4351), Louis Vuitton (3948), Levi Strauss &Co (2900), Adidas (2811) and Zara (2002). In our database is also included a large Japanese retailer, Uniqlo. In the period observed all firms showed a very positive increase in the number of shops opened (Adidas opened 927 new shops, Bershka 534, Pull&Bear, 417, Massimo Dutti and Stradivarius 569). Even if the introduction of e-commerce affected the market, the old brick-and-mortar business model is not dying. As it is shown, all firms (with the exception of Primark) adopted the e-commerce and transformed themselves into on-line/offline retail organizations. They both adopted new models of selling, opening on average each year more than 12% of new shops.

Table 2: Number of shops opened and closed per each firm in the world, the total number of shops at the end of the period, and e-commerce presence.


i: our analysis on firms’ web sites. Source: authors’ elaboration on Thomson Reuters data.

Thus, even if new players entered the market (such as Amazon, Zalando, Yoox, and many others), large incumbents did not fail. Sales through e-commerce are disclosed by firms in the financial reports. Zara, Adidas and Hugo Boss, declared a percentage of e-commerce sales on total sales between 5 and 7% in the last years (Table 2).


The aim of this paper was to analyse the impact of e-commerce on traditional retailing. In the first part of the paper, we went through a short literature review, showing how e-commerce is an innovation which can deeply transform the fashion industry. In the same vein, this literature highlights how this topic can be analysed from different approaches (e.g. business model, innovation, and others). In the second part of this work we showed some data obtained by two different databases. Data support our idea that there is no cannibalization among the online and brick-and-mortar channels. This work has some limitations. The number of firms chosen for this analysis in not too large. Then, another limitation is due to the fact that official databases contain only few information about online business.

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Monday 27 February 2023

Lupine Publishes| Development of Woven Fabrics with High-Count and Cooling Collagen

 Lupine Publishers| Journal of Textile and Fashion Designing


The 60’s cooling collagen viscose rayon blended yarn was fabricated by using ring spinning system. The blended yarn constitutions included 50wt% of regular viscose rayon with 1.5d and 38mm, 35wt% of cooling viscose rayon with 1.25d and 38mm, and 15 wt% of collagen viscose rayon fibers with 1.5d and 38mm. As mension above 60’s cooling collagen viscose rayon ring yarn was used as filling yarn. The 60’s Model Rayon(60wt%) ring yarn was used as warp yarns. The grey cloth specifications included warp density 198 ends/ 2.54cm and filling density 146 picks/2.54cm as well as the fabric width is 170cm which was produced by Picanol air-jet shuttleless loom. From the experimental results, the finished woven fabric was fabricated throuth souring, bleaching, dyeing, finishing, and heat setting processes. The color fastness of woven fabrics with high-count and cooling collagen achieved grade 4-5 according to CNS1494 testing standard.

Furthermore, the Functional Properties of Finished Woven Fabric were Processed as Follows

The instant cooling feeling value (Qmax) achieved 0.206W/cm= according to CNS 15141 testing standard. The static thermal image temperature difference achieved 1.3℃ according to FTTS-FA-010 testing specification which was draw up Functionality and Industrial Textiles Certification and Verification Review Committee in Taiwan. The Anti-pilling achieved grade 4 according to CNS 15141 testing standard. The electrostatic voltage caused by friction achieve grade 2 (100≤V< 500). The woven fabrics with highcount and cooling ccollagen blended yarn can be used in bedding, shirts, jackets, scarves, pants, pajama, etc.

Keywords: Cooling collagen viscose rayon ring blended yarn; Instant cooling feeling (Qmax); Static thermal image temperature difference; High count woven fabric


The development, manufacture and design of Taiwan’s functional home bedding fiber products, main problem lies in the functional design of the bedding fiber products, fashion design, cost assessment and comfort. The advantages of cotton fiber made bedding products include good water absorption and air permeability. However, there are disadvantages of large shrinkage rate and wrinkle after washing. The advantages of polyester fiber made bedding products include not easy to wrinkle and shrink, and high heat resistance, but it is easy to generate static electricity and contaminate dust and has the disadvantage of being stuffy when used. The advantages of cellulose series fiber-made bedding products included better moisture absorption and dyeing, which are suitable for blending with other fibers such as polyester, and polyamide, but it is easy become longer after hanging, easy to shrink after laundry, and dry cleaning is required. The advantages of acrylic fabrics fiber made home bedding products, included nonwrinkle, better chemical resistance, sunlight resistance and thermal insulation, but have the disadvantages of easy raising, worse heat resistance and sultry heat in summer. Especially on the printed cloth, it is not suitable for the strong sunlight. Due to long-term sunlight radiation, it will cause the pattern on the fabric to fade. It is recommended to install it in a cool and ventilated place in the house. The jacquard woven fabric was weaved according to the predesigned pattern, which is visually elegant and textured. Therefore, it is suitable for installation in the bedroom, study, and elder room are also high-priced products. The long-term use of home furnishings and bedding products mainly emphasizes the beauty, style and brand. Due to the problems of comfort and functionality, the development of woven fabrics with high counts of cooling collagen bedding has stagnated and lacks interest. Therefore, the development of this case uses the advantage of blending rayon fibers with cooling collagen fibers to improve the general use of materials such as cotton and polyester to improve the quality, comfort and structural design of the bedding. Improve and declare the quality, comfort and structural design of bedding products, which is the future path for the development of international bedding product market.

In recent years, the collagen is more important in the fields of health food, cosmetics, medicine and man-made fiber. In the field of collagen textile fiber production in recent years, the additive is mainly composed of papolis, collagen extracted from milkfish scales, bone-extracted collagen and artificial collagen [1]. Collagen is a natural substrate in the natural ecology, which has the following three aspects of health effects on the human body.

a) Comfort - collagen is composed of 18 kinds of amino acids, which has excellent biocompatibility with the human body.

b) It has humidity regulation function, because collagen is rich in hydrophilic groups such as many amine groups (-CONH) and amino groups (-NH2), the structure is porous, easy to diffuse water molecules, and can be adjusted in humid air as well as have a certain amount of water.

c) Tryptophan and Tyrosine in collagen absorb ultraviolet rays, and ultraviolet rays are harmful to the skin, so collagen can protect the skin from ultraviolet light radiation [2-7]. The special collagen formula and the polymerization method of the innovative process to enhance the performances of collagen rayon staple fibers such as heat resistance, durability, moisture retention, skin-friendly and comfort, etc., and have higher added value and economic benefits [8].


The 60’s cooling collagen viscose rayon blended yarn was spun by ring spinning method. The cooling collagen yarn constitution was made from 50wt% regular viscose rayon, 35% cooling viscose rayon and collagen viscose rayon through ring spinning sytem which through scoutching and opening, carding, combing, 3-passage drwaing, roving, ring spinning, and autocorner processes to fabricate the blended yarn. Furthermore, 60’s cooling collagen viscose rayon blended yarn was used as filling yarn (40wt%) and 60’s Model rayon yarn as the warp yarn(60wt%). The grey cloth specifications included warp density 198 ends/ 2.54cm and filling density 146 picks/2.54cm as well as the fabric width is 170cm and fabricated by Picanol air-jet shuttleless loom. The fabric structure is sateen, weight is 213g/yd and width 157cm (62in).

Results and Discussion

Figure 1: Comparison the thermal absorption and diffusion between cooling collagen and regular knitted fabrics.


The color fastness of woven fabrics with high-count and cooling collagen achieved grade 4-5 according to CNS1494 testing standard. The finished woven fabric passed through souring, bleaching, dyeing, finishing, and heat setting processes. Furthermore, the functional properties of finished woven fabric were processed as follows: Quality specifications in accordance with FTTS-FA-019 testing specification [11], instantaneous cooling value of woven fabric with high count and cooling collagen could be achieved 0.206W/cm2. The static thermal image temperature difference achieved 1.3℃ according to FTTS-FA-010 testing specification [10] which was draw up Functionality and Industrial Textiles Certification and Verification Review Committee in Taiwan. The Anti-pilling achieved grade 4 according to CNS 15141 testing standard. The electrostatic voltage caused by friction achieve grade 2 (100≤V< 500). The water absorption height along warp and filling direction was 59mm and 51mm respectively according to FTTS-FA-004 testing specification [9]. The thermal absorption and diffusion behaviors between cooling collagen and regular woven fabrics was shown in Figure 1. After irradiating by a 500W halogen lamp, there is a tendency to gradually increase the temperature as the irradiation time increases since thermal absorption behavior. The halogen lamp is turned off, after the irradiation for 10 minutes, and the temperature gradually decreases as time increases since thermal diffusion behavior. Furthermore, the higher thermal absorption and diffusion of regular viscose rayon woven fabric than cooling collagen woven fabric, since the lower moisture content and absorption of regular viscose rayon woven fabric than cooling collagen woven fabric. It is probably because the collagen has much more amino acid and hydroxyl functional groups, so the moisture content and absorption ability would be better. Due to superior functionality, physical and chemical properties, the woven fabrics with high-count and cooling collagen staple yarns can be used in bedding, shirts, jackets, scarves, pants, pajama, etc.


The yarns and woven fabrics with high-count and cooling collagen performance was fabricated successfully. The spring and summer bedding used woven fabrics are designed as the product, and the related physical and chemical properties (washing dyeing fastness test- faded and stained, anti-pilling, etc.) and functionality (instant cool heat flow, static thermal image, water absorption height, electrostatic voltage caused by friction, etc). The experimental results show that the physical and functional properties can meet the basic requirements of bedding used woven fabric in spring and summer. The development of spring and summer bedding is in line with the industrial upgrading and transformation and industry innovation research and development theme, including the combination of upstream (functional fiber), midstream (yarn, fabric), downstream (dyeing and finishing) industry and women’s products to integrate cooperated supply chain. The cooling collagen woven fabric has lower temperature than regular viscose rayon fabric. Due to superior functionality, physical and chemical properties, the woven fabrics with highcount and cooling collagen staple yarn could be used in bedding, shirts, jackets, scarves, pants, pajama, etc.


Much appreciated to the Industrial Bureau, Ministry of Economic of the Executive Yuan in Taiwan for providing financial support for this project (B10710200). This industrial- academicals project is jointly developed by Dong Chu International Textile Co., Ltd. and Textile and Materials Industry Research Center of the Feng Chia University (TMIRC). During the implementation of this project, we are very grateful to the supply chain manufacturers for their assistance in mass production and finished product design and testing method of woven fabrics. We would also like to thank the students from the Organic and Inorganic Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials (FCM) of Feng Chia University (FCU) and the colleagues of TMIRC for their assistance in testing and experiments.

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Saturday 25 February 2023

Lupine Publishers | Epigenetically Reprogrammed Methylation as a Gifted Potential Cancer Biomarker

 Lupine Publishers | Journal of Oncology


Ontrary to genetic changes of DNA molecule which change exactly the sequence of DNA and are not reversible, the DNA methylation involves in addition of a methyl group to cytosine nucleotide to control genes expression which is reversible [1,2]. Methylation is unique change that consequence in different gene expression pattern and finally may trigger the onset of diseases like cancer [3]. Epigenetic reprogramming in cancer cells represents a unique methylation landscape concerning the net loss of global DNA methylation simultaneously with an increase in the levels of in CpGs islands. So, cancer epigenetically reprogrammed methylation landscape (i.e., Methylscape) can be a common feature exhibited by most cancer types and therefore can be a universal cancer biomarker. The DNA methylation in molecular level change the gene expression pattern of the cell but methylation can change the physicochemical properties of DNA polymer in solution including DNA structure and its affinity as well.

It is shown by Abu Ali Ibn Sina and his colleagues examined the consequence of levels and genomic distribution of methylcytosines on the physicochemical properties of DNA to sense the Methylscape biomarker [4]. They found that DNA polymeric behavior is powerfully affected by differential patterning of methylcytosine resulting in fundamental differences in DNA solvation and DNA-gold affinity as the discriminative biomarker between cancerous and normal genomes. They use the Methylscape differences to develop simple, greatly sensitive and selective electrochemical or colorimetric one-step assays for the detection of cancer.

In mammalian genomes, DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) duty is transferring the methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to cytosine at CpG dinucleotides (CpG islands) [5]. The majority of the methylation happens through DNA duplication in the S-phase of the cell cycle, and is the supreme rich form of post-replicative DNA alteration of eukaryotic organisms [6,7]. DNA methylation cause the 180° flip out of the DNA backbone into an active-site pocket of the enzyme where methylation of cytosine takes place [8]. In fact, well methylated DNA (hypermethylated) is classically coupled with inactive genes, whereas methylation depletion (hypomethylation) can be observed in active genes.

Actually it is confirmed that DNA segments containing methylated Cytosine like something which is happening in cancer cells, are very stiff and hard to bend, and present an inferior tendency to circularize or form nucleosomes by wrapping around histones and can be used as the discriminative universal cancer biomarker [4]. There is a big hope that in the near future by using some physical properties of methylated DNA in comparison to nonmethylated DNA the diagnostic kits will be approved with no advanced complicated molecular technologies.

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Friday 24 February 2023

Lupine Publishers | Temporal Variation in the parasitic Metazoan Communities of Sympterygia bonapartii (Condrichthyes) from the Bahia Blanca estuary in Presence of Anthropogenic Impact

 Lupine Publishers | Journal of Oceanography and Petrochemical Sciences


The estuary of Bahía Blanca (39° 03′44 ″ S 62° 04′00 ″ W) occupies a large coastal area south of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. This area includes urban centers, several industrial parks and deep-water ports. The parasites sensitivity to pollutants and environmental disturbances makes many taxa useful indicators of environmental health and anthropogenic impact. In the present study, the variation in helminth communities of Sympterygia bonapartii was analyzed retrospectively after a period of 18 years. Infra-communities harbored an average of four times more parasites and became less equitable. A gradual increase in organic matter added to the parameters synergy caused by untreated sewage discharges, seems to have been the most important impact on helminth communities, altering the abundance, dominance and eveness. The present study proposes fish parasite analysis as a reliable model to monitor pollution in this ecosystem.

Keywords: Parasites; anthropogenic impact; parasites; eutrophication; environmental disturbances


The estuary of Bahía Blanca (39° 03′44 ″ S 62° 04′00 ″ W) occupies a large coastal area south of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, where the cities of Bahía Blanca, Punta Alta, General Cerri and Ingeniero White are located. By definition an estuary is diluted by fresh water from land drainage [1] thus it conforms an adequate environment to perform pollution studies, considering that it is an area that includes urban centers, several industrial parks and deep-water ports [2, 3]. All the effluents are discharged with different degrees of pretreatment, so they generate different impacts on the ecosystem. Bahía Blanca estuary has been the object of a large amount of environmental studies along the last 35 years [4-7]. The parasitic sensitivity to pollutants and environmental disturbances make many parasite taxa useful indicators of environmental health and anthropogenic impact [8]. Both parasite communities and their hosts can be regarded as comprehensive bioindicators of ecosystem health an environmental stability [9,10] Parasites can be used as effect indicators and as accumulation indicators because of the variety of ways in which they respond to anthropogenic pollution. Effect indicators are parasites that are used to detect environmental impacts through their changes in physiology, chemical composition, behavior, or number [11,12]. Sympterygia bonapartii Muller & Henle, 1841 is a coastal species present from 34 ° to 52 ° S. It is a common component of the Bahia Blanca estuary. Due to its benthonic habits, it is considered a good model to monitor the anthropogenic impact on the estuarial ecosystem. Studies on parasitism in fish through the time scale are scarce. In the present study, the variation in helminth communities of this host was analyzed retrospectively after a period of 18 years.

The parasite communities of 77 rays examined in 1992 and 73 rays in 2007/10 were compared. Prevalence, intensity, parasite abundance, richness and specific diversity were calculated. Prevalences (“G” test) and parasite abundances (U-Mann-Whitney) were compared. Average values for richness, diversity (Brillouin) and eveness were estimated. Some taxa were updated according to [13]. Nine parasite species were registered in 1992 and eight in 2007/10 with a total of 193 and 812 helminths respectively. Calicotyle macrocotyle, Otodistomum pristiophori, Rhinebothrium chilensis, Dollfusiella acuta, Heteronybelinia mattisi, Proleptus acutus and Terranova galeocerdonis, were common species at both times, while Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Pseudoanisakis argentinensis were only registered in 1992. Opecoeloides sp. was only present in 2007. The total number of parasites was significantly different between periods (U = 2080, p = 0.005) however richness and diversity did not show significant differences (U = 2597, p = 0.39; U = 560, p = 0.92 respectively). In both periods, the dominant species was R. chilensis and about 70% of the fish harbored at least one parasitic species. In 2007/10 the dominance of rhinebothriidean was maintained but there was a marked increase in prevalence and a highly significant difference in the intensities of D. acuta (G = 28.94 p <0.001; U = 2050.5 p = 0.000 respectively) and a decrease in P. acutus. The eveness was significantly different between periods (U = 493.5 p = 0.002). At the last period infra-communities harbored an average four times more parasites and became less equitable. The increase in the intensity of D. acuta was 26 times higher.


Eutrophication as a process of anthropic origin adds greater amounts of nutrients, mainly nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter that usually limits dissolved oxygen decreasing water quality. According to the Environmental Monitoring of the Internal Estuary Area (1997) [13], the global analysis of the dynamic oceanographic parameters evaluated (inorganic micronutrients, phytoplankton pigments, particulate organic matter and dissolved oxygen) showed a consistent behavior with the historical background for this area. The condition identified at that moment was an environment with excellent physiological capacity for the development of biological processes. However, at that time the need for monitoring phosphorus compounds to the system and its possible dispersion mechanism with the risk of producing eutrophication was considered. The total hydrocarbon levels that were detected in the studied environment showed that so far there was no massive income of these compounds to the system. In 2004, high phosphate values were reported in Bahía Blanca estuary, this might indicate that the sewage discharge constituted a significant contribution of phosphates to the ecosystem [14]. Six years later, a similar monitoring report of the same area evidenced some considerable changes: a significant increase in three parameters (temperature, salinity and pH) and an accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments of the system. The levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediments of the study area in the estuary, presented concentrations corresponding to moderate levels of anthropic impact and moderate to high degree of contamination. That monitoring studies indicated constant processes of eutrophication, presence of heavy metals, hydrocarbons and an increasing contribution of cadmium to the ecosystem. Ecophysiological parameters showed lower levels of dissolved oxygen, percentages of oxygen saturation, and high levels of organic matter [15].

The results of the present study are consistent with the expected helminths behavior in these situations (an increase of cestodes in eutrophied water and a decrease in nematodes in presence of hydrocarbons, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) [12]. An increase of four times in the parasite burden, 26 times greater in D. acuta abundances, and a decrease in P. acutus abundances could be justified by the increase in eutrophication and presence the hydrocarbons. The reported information makes parasitologists to consider parasites not only as causes of disease but also as bioindicators of the environmental quality. The characteristics of fish parasite communities as reflected by their biodiversity were found to be significantly different between reference and polluted sites [17]. The environmental conditions in the estuary of Bahía Blanca seem to continue worse. The report of 2017 and 2018 pointed out the internal zone of the Bahía Blanca estuary as moderately eutrophic, with biological stress conditions, high levels of macronutrients and minimum values of dissolved oxygen in some stations [18].


A gradual increase in organic matter added to the parameter’s synergy caused by untreated sewage discharges, seems to have been the most important impact on helminth communities, altering the abundances, dominances and eveness in the parasite communities of Sympterygia bonapartii along 18 years. The present study proposes fish parasite analysis as a reliable model to monitor pollution in this ecosystem.

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Wednesday 22 February 2023

Lupine Publishers| Electro Elastic Actuator for Micro and Nano Surgical Repairs

 Lupine Publishers| Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Biosciences


The structural scheme and the transfer functions, the characteristics of the electro elastic actuator for micro and nano surgical repairs are obtained. The transfer functions of the electro elastic actuator are described the characteristics of the actuator with regard to its physical parameters and external load.

Keywords: Electro elastic actuator; Piezo actuator; Structural scheme; Transfer function


The electro elastic actuator on the piezoelectric, electrostriction effects is used in the mechatronics systems for the micro and nano surgical repairs, for the micro and nano robotics, for the micro and nano manipulators and injectors [1-6]. The mathematical model, the structural scheme and transfer functions of the electro elastic actuator are calculated for designing the control system for the micro and nano surgical repairs [4-11]. The structural scheme and transfer functions the electro elastic actuator based on the electro elasticity make it possible to describe the dynamic and static properties of the electro elastic actuator for the micro and nano surgical repairs with regard to its physical parameters and external load [12-23].

Structural Scheme Electro Elastic Actuator

The method of mathematical physics with Laplace transform is applied for the solution the wave equation. The structural scheme of the electro elastic actuator for the micro and nano surgical repairs is changed from Cady and Mason electrical equivalent circuits [7- 8]. The equation of the electro elasticity [6,8,12] has the following form

where Si is the relative displacement along axis i of the cross section of the piezo actuator, is the control parameter, Em, is the electric field strength for the voltage control along axis m, Dm is the electric induction for the current control along axis m, Tj is the mechanical stress along axis j, νmi is the electro elastic module, for example, the piezo module, ij sΨ is the elastic compliance for the control parameter Ψ = const , and the indexes i= 1, 2, … , 6; j = 1, 2, … , 6; m = 1, 2, 3. The main size along axis i for the electro elastic actuator is determined us the working length l = {δ , h,b} in form the thickness, the height or the width for the longitudinal, transverse or shift piezo effect.

For the construction the structural scheme of the electro elastic actuator is used the wave equation [8,10,14] for the wave propagation in the long line with damping but without distortions. With using Laplace transform is obtained the linear ordinary second-order differential equation. The problem for the partial differential equation of hyperbolic type using the Laplace transform is reduced to the simpler problem [8,14] for the linear ordinary differential equation

where Ξ(x, p) is the Laplace transform of the displacement of the section of the electro elastic actuator α Ψ = + is the propagation coefficient, cΨ is the sound speed for the control parameterΨ = const ,α is the damping coefficient.

The mathematical model [6, 23] and the structural scheme of the electro elastic actuator for the micro and nano surgical repairs on Figure 1 are determined, using method of the mathematical physics for the solution of the wave equation, the boundary conditions and the equation of the electro elasticity, in the following form

Figure 1: Structural scheme of electro elastic actuator for micro and nano surgical repairs.


vmi is the electro elastic module, is the control parameter, m E is the electric field strength for the voltage control along axis m, m D is the electric induction for the current control along axis m, sΨij is the elastic compliance, dmi is the piezo module at the voltage-controlled piezo actuator, gmi is the piezo module at the current-controlled piezo actuator, S0 is the cross section area, M1 , M2 are the mass of the load, are the Laplace transforms of the appropriate displacements and the forces on the faces 1, 2. For the micro and nano surgical repairs the structural schemes of the voltage-controlled or current-controlled piezo actuator are obtained from its mathematical model.

Transfer Function Electro Elastic Actuator

The matrix transfer function [6,18,21] of the electro elastic actuator for the micro and nano surgical repairs is derived from its mathematical model in the following form

where (Ξ( p)) is the column-matrix of the Laplace transforms of the displacements for the faces 1, 2 of the electro elastic actuator, (W( p)) is the matrix transfer function, (P( p)) the column-matrix of the Laplace transforms of the control parameter and the forces for the faces 1, 2.


The structural scheme, the transfer functions of the electro elastic actuator for the micro and nano surgical repairs, for the micro and nano robotics, for the micro and nano manipulators and injectors are described the characteristics of the electro elastic actuator with regard to its physical parameters, external load.

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Tuesday 21 February 2023

Lupine Publishers| Influence of Fly Ash as Mineral Filler in Bituminous Mix Design

 Lupine Publishers| Journal of Civil Engineering and its Architecture


Agricultural is the largest employment sector of Bangladesh and most of the people earn their living from agricultural production. The magnitude of agricultural production varies spatially as agricultural production depends on topography, the fertility of the land, availability of river, availability of marketing place, input and so on. The intent of our study is to regionalize all the 64 districts of Bangladesh based on Boro production, fish production and the number of growth center and to analyze the impact of it on rural development. To do so, the data are collected from the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), the composite index method was employed to analyze the data. The data reliability is checked through statistical parameters named level of skewness, kurtosis and standard error of the mean. Then acquired data is classified by using the mean standard deviation method, equal class interval method and the arithmetic mean method. Comparing the three histograms it is found that equal class interval method has more symmetrical shape, hence more normally distributed. Results show that most of the areas are moderately producing the agricultural product. The findings of this study can be used to find out the location which can be best suited for the agricultural industry.

Keywords: Optimum Bitumen Content; Optimum Fly Ash content; Stone Dust; Water Effect

Abbreviations: AASHTO: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials; BS: British Standard; CA: Coarse Aggregate; FA: Fine Aggregate; MF: Mineral Filler; OBC: Optimum Bitumen Content; Va: Voids in total Mix; VMA: Voids in Mineral Aggregate; VFB: Voids Filled with Bitumen


The surface coarse of flexible pavement normally comprises of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and filler heated to suitable temperature, mixed thoroughly with heated bitumen at required viscosity and then compacted [1]. One of the major concerns of mix design of bituminous mix is the type and amount of filler used which may affect the performance of the mix. Various studies have been conducted to study properties of mineral filler, generally the material passing 0.075mm IS sieve, to evaluate its effect on performance of asphalt paving mix in terms of consistency, void filling, Marshall Stability and mix strength. Fly ash is one of the major wastes by products of coal based thermal power station [2-5]. This waste is mostly disposed by coal-based thermal power plant in the form of refuse in piles and behind embankment type retaining structures. At present, with the expectation of small scales underground waste disposal operations in abandoned coal mines, most of this waste is disposed at the surface which inevitably requires excessive planning and control of minimize the environmental impact of mining. It also results in non-productive use of land, air and water pollution, possible failure of waste embankments and loss of aesthetic value of the land.

In recent years various research studies on fly ash have been conducted to analyze the possibility of utilization of these ashes. Hence, in this study, an attempt has been made to explore the use of fly ash passing 0.075mm sieve and has been considered to be filler in bituminous paving mixes by studying various fundamental engineering properties [6]. In recent years various researches have been conducted to use fly ash as mineral filler in bituminous mix design. Sankaran and Rao [7] made a comparison of fly ash with other fillers. They pointed out that fly ash at 2% filler content provided the highest stability among the other filler. Henning [8] investigated the effect of a class C fly ash on asphalt mixture properties and concluded that the addition of 4% fly ash resulted in the higher stability and flow but ended up with low air voids. Rosner et al. [9] used fly ash as mineral filler and anti-stripping agent for asphalt concrete mixtures and showed that retained strengths of samples increased as additional fly ash was used in the prepared mixtures.

Tapkin. showed that fly ash can be used effectively in a densedgraded wearing course as a filler replacement. Konstantin et al. studied on feasibility of fillers in asphalt concrete using two different binders. These binders were fully blended with filler materials i.e. fly ash, lime and cement [10]. The study result demonstrated that rheological properties of the asphalt were greatly improved with the addition of these fillers. Fly ash also appears in improving the aging resistance of mastics. With the addition of fillers, compatibility of mixtures was not affected Kar et al. represented the influence of fly ash as a filler as a filler in bituminous mixes that the mixes with fly ash as filler exhibits marginally inferior properties compared to control mixes and satisfy desired criteria specified by a much higher margin. They recommended to utilize fly ash wherever available, not only reducing the cost of execution, but also partly solve the fly ash utilization and disposal problem. Uddin and Supriya studied the influence of fillers on paving grade bitumen and observed that fly ash being a waste product can be effectively used as filler to improve the properties of bituminous mix and fly ash also being cost effective as compared to cement and lime.

Materials & Methodology

Materials Used

Table 1: Aggregate Gradation.


Aggregate: In the laboratory test program, black stone chips which are smaller than 25mm and larger than 2.36mm in size were regarded as coarse aggregate. The black stone used in this investigation was collected from construction site of architecture building of RUET. Aggregate gradation and physical properties of coarse aggregate are shown in Tables 1 & 2 respectively. The coarser sand smaller than 2.36mm and larger than 0.075mm in size were used as fine aggregate combination of domar sand and Padma river sand were used as the main source of fine aggregate. Specific gravity of fine aggregate was found to be 2.65. Two types of filler, stone dust and fly ash which is finer than 0.075mm in size a used in this investigation. Stone dust is used as standard filler for this project. Fly ash used for main purpose were collected from Barapukuria Coal Power Plant, Dinajpur. Here specific gravity of fly ash and stone dust were found to be 2.44 and 2.13 respectively [11].

Table 2: Properties of Coarse Aggregate.


Bitumen: Grade of 80/100 bitumen has been used as bitumen for preparation of bituminous mixture. The important physical properties are tabulated in Table 3.

Table 3: Properties of Bitumen.



At first the test procedure introduced by Bruce Marshall and developed by the U.S Corps of Engineers was applied to find optimum bitumen content using stone dust as standard filler for medium traffic condition. This test has been fundamentally used in this study to evaluate the different mixture at different bitumen contents and the parameters considered are stability, flow value, unit weight, air voids, voids in mineral aggregates, voids filled with bitumen. Now by fixing this optimum bitumen content specimens were prepared. Specimens prepared by replacing stone dust with fly ash gradually such as 0% fly ash and 100% stone dust, 25% fly ash and 75% stone dust, 50% fly ash and 50% stone dust, 75% fly ash and 25% stone dust and 100% fly ash and 0% stone dust by total weight of filler. Bruce Marshall test was applied to determine optimum fly ash content by Marshall Mix design criteria for medium traffic condition [12]. Now using these optimum bitumen content and optimum fly ash content specimens were prepared to observe the effect of water submergence on compacted specimen. To observe the effect of water submergence on compacted specimen, compacted specimens were submerged in water for 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days. After each selected days Marshall Test was applied on these specimens.

Result and Discussion

Marshall Test of Specimens Using Stone Dust as Filler

For Bituminous mixes using standard filler stone dust and various bitumen content following six curves showing the relationships of unit weight, Marshall stability, flow, percentage of voids in total mix, percentage of voids in mineral aggregates, percentage of voids filled with bitumen with percentage of bitumen content were drown to determine optimum bitumen content. Curves were drown with data from Table 4. Curves are shown in Figures 1-6. Here, Optimum bitumen content from above figure calculated as 5.56%. Value of Stability, flow, %Va, %VMA and %VFB for optimum bitumen content satisfy the Marshall Mix Design Criteria.

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Monday 20 February 2023

Lupine Publishers| How to Prepare Children with Autism to Visit a Dentist?

 Lupine Publishers| Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health Care



One of the most common problems that parents with children with autism have is to take them to a doctor’s or dentist’s office. Even if the office environment is friendly and the dentist or doctor or their assistants are kind to the child, children who have autism do not like others to come close to them, touch them, and when they are alone, someone is in contact with their bodies. When children’s physical environment is invaded, they react to this behavior and do not cooperate with the other person, and sometimes they even become aggressive. It should be said that in many cases, these children are torn apart. There are many problems when a child visits a dentist’s office. For example, special smells, a tray of dental instruments, and devices and tools may pose a threat to the peaceful world of these children. For a child with autism spectrum disorder, a dental office is full of insecurity and, consequently, is an unpleasant place [1,2].

Preparation by Parents

Here are some simple solutions that parents can do to help their children with autism when they plan to go to the dentist’s office. Make a medical bag ready for your child; it is best to let him choose this bag by himself. Meanwhile, give him times to get acquainted with the tools inside the bag so that to find out what they are. After spending some time, show him what these tools are used for, and first try them on your own, siblings or someone else. The next step is to run the show with your child, pretending to be a doctor and treat him with these tools. Now ask your child to change his place with you, and let him try this tool on you, his sister or brother or someone else. You can also use a puppet or a stuffed doll or even your own pet to display these tools. Explain to your child what each device is used for, and let him access the toys toolbox and play with them freely. When friends, neighbors, and relatives come to your home, let them play with this gadget with your child, and then tell them to change their role with your child. Remember, if your child can find a playmate to practice with these tools, he will be great of help. If possible, give him a medical phone or more realistic tools to practice with them; however, in this case, you need to make sure your child is monitored and is safe. Give him a prize after each real meeting or show-up meeting with a dentist, or returning from the medical laboratory. Finally, play with your doctor’s true name when your child feels comfortable in the “Physician and Patient” game. In addition, along with this medicine toolbox, you can read books about meeting with the dentist too [3].

How to Take an Autistic Child to a Dental Office?

It can be difficult for every child to visit a dentist, but for a child with autism, referral to the dentist is very scary. Here are some tips for parents that will make this condition easier for their autistic children [4-6].

Before the Appointment

a. First Method: Try to get an appointment from dental centers that have been established for people with disabilities. These centers experience the treatment of disabled children and usually know what to do to make your child feel relaxed and happy during treatment. If your child needs something special at a specific time, please inform the center before visiting. You can also tell them about your child’s interests so that the dental center’s staff can talk to him about his interests while he is being treated [7].

b. Second Method: Consider the appointment for a day when your child is not busy. In order to minimize the stress on your child, it is advisable to rest well before going to the dentist. So, consider a day to visit that your child has not done much. This will reduce her stress and cry. In order to provide him with the ideal condition, it is advisable for the dentist to have free time before and after the visit so that he can cope with the situation well [8].

c. Third Method: Try to tell stories about the dentists for your child. Dentists are usually a frightening person for autistic children. So, if they know what happens when they are treated, their fear will be reduced.

d. Fourth Method: Talk to him about the fears your child may face. The mouth is a sensitive part of the body, and for some autistic children, this part has a special sensitivity. As a result, your child may have many concerns. Therefore, confirm his emotions and trust him; for example, you can tell him”It’s quite common for you to be afraid, so many people are afraid of a dentist. But I know this doctor. He always tries to be very careful and do his work the best. I know you do not want to go to dentistry, but the dental practitioner takes care of your teeth to make sure that they are healthy. We have to go there, but you may not love him. “

e. Fifth Method: Plan for a stimulus activity. For example: watching a movie, visiting his favorite park and even buying a small toy are things that can make your child happy. Before you go to the dentist, choose this activity and be sure it will be very helpful. Try telling your child about this encouraging activity, because he has hope for reaching that. For example: If your child has a lot of interest in the ribbons, tell him: “After dentistry, we go shopping and you can buy two ribbons.” As a result, when your child is in fear, he will think about his ribbons during the treatment. If you think that your child will be tired after dentistry, try to consider small activities. Do not use food as encouragement, because after the treatment, he cannot eat for a while.

f. Sixth Method: Give him food before leaving. Your child can not eat anything for a while after dental procedures. A hungry child is a child who easily cries and gets tired. Make sure your child has eaten her food, and then brush her teeth without any hurry [10-12].

When Visiting the Dentist

a. Method 1: Inform your child that you are ready to go to the dentist. Your child should brush his teeth before leaving the house. Let him bring something like a toy or any other device to the dentist office which makes him more comfortable. Do not hurry him because it can cause stress in your child. Try telling him the plan a few hours before you are leaving. This way, if needed, he can finish doing his work without any anxiety.

b. Method 2: Be extremely patient and kind. If your child is stressful, he will behave strangely because he actually fights emotionally. Be gentle and consider that it will not be easy for your child too. Try to do things in your car that your child is interested in. Play his favorite music, talk with him about your interests; or if he is interested in singing, try to sing a song together. You should know that your child needs to be assured about the condition; may ask you questions repeatedly, so give him a peaceful answer.

c. Method 3: Talk with the dental center staffs, and ask for help for the comfort and relaxation of your child. Perhaps they are able to create a situation in which your child can have a more pleasant visit to the dentist.

d. Method 4: Thinking of not being beside him, may cause this image that you are leaving him which may develop more fear and stress. Make assure your child that you would be in the waiting room if he will need you. If your child is getting disturbed by being away from you, ask the dentist to let you stay in the room with him.

e. Method 5: Encourage and admire her after the meeting. Tell her she has done this job very well, and keep on the encouraging activity you have been considering. This will make him feel better about doing anything. If your child has had bad conditions during the treatment (crying, screaming, etc.), you should tell him: “It’s not the courage to not be afraid, the courage is to face it, and you did it very well. Although the dentistry is scary and difficult, you did it “. Tell him you are proud of him [13].

Characteristics of Children with Autism

These children have certain behavioral characteristics, some of which include:

Impairment of speaking or not speaking at all, and repeating words and sentences spoken by people around him

i. Susceptible to restlessness and discomfort due to problems in the sensory process, anxiety, fears, and difficulty of communicating

ii. Exaggerated reactions to smells, voices, special tastes and other sensory incitements

iii. Excessive use of body movements to calm himself up, such as shaking hands and waving hands

iv. Failure to respond when calling his name so that the child seems to be deaf

v. Express the discomfort of breaking up routines and habits, and reacting to changes

vi. Restlessness and agility, the need to play and touch objects, and anything around

vii. Avoiding eye and physical contact

viii. Problems in social skills

ix. Obsessive-compulsive and adherence to them

x. Lack of effective self-perception of his feelings and others

xi. The difficulty in understanding security and risk aversion.

xii. Performing repetitive games for consecutive hours

Also, these children prefer to play alone and have little fancy imagination. Some may also have symptoms of hyperactivity and early angry [14].

Oral Condition in Children with Autism

Children with autism often have no differences with normal children in the structures of the teeth, but as these children tend to eat soft and sweet foods, they sometimes have muscle weakness around their mouth. As a result, the reduction in the efficiency of the chewing is observed, and even sometimes they tend to keep the mouthfuls long in their mouth, which increases the rate of caries in these children. Also, due to the inability to brush correctly, and the lack of proper cooperation with parents, caries, and gingivitis are more common in these children [15].

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Saturday 18 February 2023

Lupine Publishers | LEAP Science and Maths School– An Anthropologically- Grounded Education Intervention Model During COVID-19

 Lupine Publishers | Journal of Anthropology and Archaeology


During COVID-19 the learning experience for students entirely from the lowest quintile of the South African Black population proved highly difficult after the South African government closed all schools in March,2020, especially for secondary schools. A remarkable values-driven culturally coherent Leap Schools of Science and Maths with six campuses utilized cell phones to continue teaching and engaging the students. The necessity was due to the inability of families of students to provide other internet connections. The new methodology of learning of Leap Schools includes the skill of teachers in consciousness-raising and the extraordinary resilience of the students. Students were grounded by LEAP methodology in both anthropologically designed activities and consciousness-raising and showed self-determination at a mature level surpassing the public school students as assessed by the Department of Education of South Africa.


LEAP Science and Maths Schools have developed a valuesdriven culturally coherent school model as a successful approach to break the cycle of poverty for Black children living in the lowest economic category in South African township and rural communities. South Africa presently has the highest GINI coefficient showing the largest global difference between rich and poor. The model on which the Schools were founded by John Gilmour has for seventeen years worked to create schools where high expectations, self-liberating pedagogy, and a powerful sense of belonging to school and community, have reduced the huge drop-out problem and ensured access to pathways into economic productivity and responsible citizenship [1].
LEAP adopts a unique Life Orientation based approach to social-emotional learning leading to self-liberating consciousness development and life success. The model builds on the basic construct of circles of healing in which all LEAP students participate on a daily basis in difficult conversations unlocking personal insight and understanding opening the door to self-liberation and meta cognitive capacity for critical thinking. The success of the model is reflected in Table 1 in a number of areas of measurement and assessment including the following: academic results; measures of resilience and academic literacy; and post-school outcomes seen in.

Table 1. Comparison LEAP to Public Schools in national South African testsplus access to Universities and Pass rates.


The real value of Life Orientation is “process intervention” relying on daily time spent in the facilitated process circle groups, results in accelerated learning in the subject areas of Maths and Science, subjects from which black children in South Africa were barred prior to 1994. This approach applies conscious focus on personal emotional development and liberating school structures intended to ensure appropriate cultural coherence has ensured the development of an African school model that tends to the child’s well-being through identity construction and development of intrinsic capacity for self-regulation.
The LEAP model assumes that moral courage derived from an education for cultural coherence is extremely likely to lead to personal agency and some degree of critical distance from students inherited beliefs by virtue of the inescapable differences encountered in the larger society. This daily encounter particularly with secular, materialistic difference is very likely to encourage critical reflection on ideas and convictions, certainly to a higher degree than is likely to be the case for many cosmopolitan people for whom principled encounters with difference are often incoherent or irrelevant. Perhaps most importantly, an education for cultural coherence may very well provide persons with a vantage point from which to critique a culture of mass conformity, consumerism and materialism; it also may provide each student with amoral foundation from which strength can be drawn in encountering social injustice.
LEAP embraces the ancient African philosophy of Ubuntu as an African alternative basis for quality education to the rugged individualism often projected as the mark of potential progress as discussed by Prof. John Volmick (Figure 1).” Ubuntu has the potential to influence all spheres of people development and of governance”.


Application of African Active Leaning and consciousness training to Pandemic constraints with positive outcomes for Science and Math learning (Figure 1 and 2).

Figure 1: Concept of Ubuntu by various Educational authorities in South Africa. AT right, Prof. Joh Volmink, University of South Africa and Ubuntu.


Figure 2: Photos of Action based- Leap learning regenerating endemic Spekboom native habitat plant prior to European colonization decimation including with livestock. Spekboom provides Carbon sequestration for Climate change, Biodiversity habitat, soil enrichment, water retention services to citizens. LEAP students in action-based learning projects planting endemic, carbon-sequestering Spekboom – children in regenerative projects as change agents.


Digital Integration in LEAP Schools in 2020

While the bulk of the Western world and privileged schools in South Africa are able to switch to online teaching and learning platforms, most South African schools are in no position to do this given that they are working with children who generally do not have access to suitable devices or connectivity. The reality is that in times of disasters of the nature of Coronavirus, communities served by the LEAP Science and Maths Schools, have been at risk of suffering the consequences most severely. It remains a great challenge within the Sustainable Development Goal framework that the Corona virus pandemic could further widen the digital gap and increase poverty. All LEAP students come into the school having had limited access to the internet and generally only access via cell-phones. LEAP does not provide or facilitate the acquisition of devices for the children. This is directly parallel to the children in state public schools. However, when the lockdown commenced, LEAP activated access to cell-phones through communication with families to encourage the sharing of family phones for online communication and learning and the provision of phones for many students where there has been no family access and ensured that these students are able to be connected.

Results of Cell Phone Support

The results showed very high levels of student engagement throughout lockdown; social emotional support from teachers continued unabated; peer connection and peer learning groups continued and grew; and academic work continued. The Table 2 shows IXL skill progress summary: (Figure 3 and 4, Table 3)

Figure 3:LEAP Schools record of disciplinary fields of employment into which former students became engaged after 4 years of LEAP education. Products indicating important social outcomes of LEAP education are listed at left of table.


Figure 4: Women form 66% of Leap students and graduates. Photos of recent Graduates, in Maths and in Science and cultural expression activities of music and dance along withCommunity child-care activities of LEAP.


Table 2: L Skill Progress of LEAP students during cellphone learning of COVID-19 full lockdown, and partial lockdown period (12th grade in classrooms, with others by distance learning).(March 2020 through November 2020.)


Table 3: The general charactertics of enhancement byLEAP education. And Prediction of intervention in school System of LEAP via its Leap Institute for Teacher training.



The success of the LEAP Science and Maths Schools in South Africa is directly attributable to ensuring cultural coherence and exploring and affirming historical cultural context for all students. During COVID-19 lockdown the students were able to respond creatively using their family cell phones. This was a direct result of real learning purpose, and their intrinsically driven consciousness, as a consequence of the development of a strong sense of self and the internalised values of the African principles of UBUNTU cultivated through the LEAP pedagogy of self-liberation.

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