Wednesday 31 July 2019

Study the Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Brass Sculpture by Atmospheric Pollutants in Winter Season | Lupine Publishers

Material science journal | Lupine Publishers



Brass is an important metalloid which is used in construction of sculptures. It is noticed that sculpture of brass is corroding due to interaction of pollutants. The pollutants develop chemical and electrochemical reaction on the surface of base material. Their concentrations of corrosive pollutants are increased in winter season. The air quality becomes very poor in winter season. Inside sculpture different forms of corrosion are observed like galvanic, pitting, stress, crevice etc. The major components of pollutants are oxides of carbon, oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulphur, ammonia, ozone and particulates. Among these pollutants oxides of sulphur and ammonia are major corroder of brass. Ammonia is observed moist air to form ammonium hydroxide. It produces chemical reaction with brass metal and form complex compounds like [Zn(NH4)4](OH)2, [Zn(NH4)4]SO4, [Zn(NH4)]CO3, [Cu(NH4)4](OH)2, [Cu(NH4)4]SO4, [Cu(NH4)]CO3 etc. Oxides of sulphur react with moist air to exhibit sulphurous and sulphuric acids. They interact with brass to develop corrosion cell zinc metal and it is oxidized into Zn2+ ions and these ions are active to humidity and carbon dioxide to yield Zn(OH)2.ZnCO3.2H2O. Copper is converted into Cu2+ and it reacts with moist air and carbon dioxide to produce Cu(OH)2.Cu(CO3)2 and these complex compound detached on the surface of brass metal by rain water. These pollutants change their physical, chemical and mechanical properties and they also tarnish their facial appearance. Brass’ sculpture is affected by uniform corrosion. This type of corrosion can be control by nanocoating and electrospray techniques. For this work (6Z)-5,8-dihydrazono- 5,8-dibenzo[a,c][8]annulene and TiO2 are used as nanocoating and electrospray materials. The corrosion rate of material was determined by gravimetric and potentiostat technique. The nanocoating and electrospray compounds are formed a composite layer on surface of base metal. The formation of composite layer is analyzed by thermal parameters like activation energy, heat of adsorption, free energy, enthalpy and entropy. These thermal parameters were calculated by Arrhenius, Langmuir isotherm and transition state equations. Thermal parameters results are depicted that both materials are adhered with sculpture through chemical bonding. The surface coverage area and coating efficiency indicates that nanocoating and electrospray are produced a protective barrier in ammonia and sulphur dioxide atmosphere.
Keywords:Brass sculpture; Corrosion; Atmospheric pollutants; Nanocoating; Electrospray; Sulphur dioxide; Composite barrier


The sculpture of brass comes in contact of contaminated air thus its deterioration starts for protection various types methods can be applied [1]. Brass [2] has major components is copper and zinc. Zn reacts the hot air to produce ZnO which is active in humidity [3] to convert into Zn(OH)2. In moist air [4], they form CuO, ZnO, Cu(OH)2 and Zn(OH)2. Both metals are active with sulphur to yield Cu2S, CuS and ZnS and these metallic sulphides [5] react with moist air to give Cu(OH)2, Zn(OH)2, CuSO4 and ZnSO4. The hydroxides of these metals interact with CO2 to produce CuCO3 and ZnCO3. Sulphur dioxide [6] is a culprit of brass. It undergoes with Cu(OH)2 and Zn(OH)2 to convert into CuSO4 and ZnSO4. Moist SO2 yields H2SO3 and H2SO4 whereas they create acidic environment [7] for brass and generate corrosion cell on their surface. It accelerates disintegration [8] in metal components of sculpture of brass. Brass is highly sensitive to ambient of ammonia gas [9]. It interacts with humid atmosphere [10] to NH4OH and it deposits on the surface brass metal [11] thus it converts into a complex layer of [Cu(NH3)4] (OH)2 and [Zn(NH3)4](OH)2 that layer erosion starts in rain water. [Cu(NH3)4](OH)2 and [Zn(NH3)4](OH)2 complex compounds [12] come in contact of H2SO4 environment to produce [Cu(NH3)4]SO4 and [Zn(NH3)4]SO4 that complex layer is eroded in rain water. In acidic medium brass outer face has developed CuSO4 and ZnSO4 when dust particulates [13] are deposited on their surface which contains Fe to remove Cu and Zn from outer surface. Dust particulates are possessed oxides of alkali metal in presence of moisture, it produces NaOH or KOH [14] that is create hostile environment for Zn and it forms complex compound [15] Na2[Zn(OH)4]or Na[Zn(OH)3.H2O] or Na[Zn(OH)3.(H2O)3]. The oxides of NO2 reacts with moist air to give HNO3 that acid produces chemical reaction with Cu and it converted into Cu(NO3)2. Some organic acids [16] available in air like acetic acid which develop corrosive environment for Cu and Zn which converts Cu into Cu2(CH3COO)4.H2O and Zn into (CH3COO)6. Zn4O complex compounds [17]. They are eroded by rain water on the surface of brass. Organic compounds [18] like amnio and sulpur increased day by day in atmosphere. They develop hostile environment for brass and corroding it. Corrosive pollutants [19] concentrations like oxides of carbon, oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulphur, hydride of sulphur and nitrogen, ozone and particulates are enhanced due to industrials wastes, effluents, flues and other factors are like burning of coals, woods and cow dung cakes. Harmful pollutants [20] come into atmosphere through agricultural wastes, human wastes, pharmaceutical wastes, household wastes, food wastes and decomposition of living things. Various types of transports like road, water and air are evolving CO, NO2 and SO2 gases which produce acidic environments for brass. Several types of techniques are used to control the corrosion of brass like metallic coating; polymeric coating, paint coating, organic and inorganic coating of materials but these didn’t give satisfactory results in corrosive medium. Some organic and inorganic inhibitors are applied to protect the corrosion of materials in acidic but they provide good results. Hot dipping, electroplating and galvanization techniques is used as protective tools for brass corrosion in acidic medium but these methods don’t shave base metals. In this work it is to mitigate corrosion of brass corrosion by nanocoating and filler techniques. These materials form composite barrier on the surface base metal and blocked porosities and stop diffusion or osmosis process of pollutants.


Brass coupons 15sqcm were taken for experimental analysis. Samples surface were rubbed with emery paper, rinsed with acetone, dry them and kept into desiccators. Sample kept 20meter height of roof in open sky and it observed that colour of brass can be changed. Corrosion rate was determined in winter season by weight loss method. The concentration of SO2 in November 75ppm, December 90ppm, January 105ppm and February 120ppm and temperatures recorded in this period were 298K, 294K, 291K and 295K. Synthesis organic compound (6Z)-5,8-dihydrazono- 5,8-dibenzo[a,c][8]annulene used as nanocoating and TiO2 as filler and corrosion of brass metal calculated in above mentioned concentrations and temperatures in winter season. Both compounds formed a composite barrier on surface of base metal (Figures 1-4). Surface adsorption phenomenon studied by thermal parameters like activation energy, heat of adsorption, free energy, enthalpy and entropy.Potentiostat/Galvanostat model EG&G used for corrosion potential, corrosion current and corrosion current density. Brass sample put between H2|Pt electrode as auxiliary electrode and Hg2Cl2|HgCl2 electrode reference electrode.
Figure 1: .
Figure 2:
Figure 3:
Figure 4:

Synthesis of (6Z)-5,8-dihydrazono-5,8-dibenzo[a,c][8] annulene

Phenatharene was oxidized into [1,1’-biphenyl]-2,2’- dicarboxylic acid by the use of H2O2 in presence of CH3COOH. When [1,1’-biphenyl]-2,2’-dicarboxylic acid was treated in PCl5 in benzene solution at 0 oC temperature, [1,1’-biphenyi]-2,2’-dicarbonyl chloride was obtained. It reacted with diazomethane to produce yield [1,1’-biphenyl]-2,2’-dicarboxodiazomethan which heated Cu(acac)2 in presence THF to yield (Z)-dibenzo[a,c][8]annulene- 5,8-dione. It was used with hydrazine hydrate in ethyl alcohol to give (6Z)-5,8-dihydrazone-5,8-dihydrodibenzo[a,c][8]annulene.

Results and Discussion

Brass metal was exposed in moist SO2 environment in 75ppm, 90ppm, 105ppm and 120ppm concentrations and 298 0K, 294 0K, 291 0K and 295 0K temperatures. The corrosion rate of brass metal was determined in winter season without coating and with coating (6Z)-5,8-dihydrazone-5,8-dihydrodibenzo[a,c][8]annulene and TiO2 electrospray of by weight loss formula K= 534 W/DAT (where W is weight loss, D is density and T is time) and their values were mentioned in (Table 1)
Table 1:Corrosion of Brass Sculpture in Winter Season in SO2 medium.
The corrosion rate of brass metal was recorded in the months of November, December, January and February, the results (Table 1) was shown that corrosion rate of metal increased in January to February but theses values were reduced with coating and filler materials like (6Z)-5,8-dihydrazone-5,8-dihydrodibenzo[a,c][8] annulene and TiO2. It was clearly noticed in (Figure 5) K versus Month. Brass metal kept into 75ppm, 90ppm, 105ppm and 120ppm of SO2 medium in month of Nov, Dec, Jan and Feb without coating. It was coated with 25mM, 30mM, 40mM and 45mM concentrations of (6Z)-5,8-dihydrazone-5,8-dibenzo[a,c][8]annulene, and again kept into same concentrations of SO2. After coating of (6Z)-5, 8-dihydrazone-5,8-dibenzo[a,c][8]annulene electrospray coating of TiO2 used at 5mM, 10mM, 15mm and 20mM concentrations and same concentrations SO2 Nov to Feb. The corrosion rates of in these three cases were written in (Table 1). These results were shown that corrosion rates without coating increased, it values decreased coating with (6Z)-5, 8-dihydrazone-5,8-dibenzo[a,c][8]annulene but their values more reduced with TiO2 electrospray. These trends were shown in (Figure 6) which plotted K versus C. The corrosion rates of brass metal at different temperatures 298 0K, 294 0K, 291 0K and 295 0K without and with coating were recorded in (Table 1). The addition of nanocoating and electrospray were reduced the corrosion rates as temperatures variation, it noticed in K versus T in (Figure 7).
Figure 5: K(mmpy) Vs Months for brass metals.
Figure 6: KVs T nanocoating and electrospray.
Figure 7: %CE Vs C(mM) nanocoating and electrospray.
Figure 8: %CE Vs T for nanocoating and electrospray.
(Figure 8) plot between %C (percentage coating efficiency) versus C (concentrations in mM) indicated that nanocoating compound (6Z)-5, 8-dihydrazone-5,8-dibenzo[a,c][8]annulene increased coating efficiency but TiO2 electrospray produced more coating efficiency with respect of nanocoating compound. The values of % coating efficiency were calculated by formula %CE = (1-K/Ko) X100 (where Ko is corrosion rate without coating and K is corrosion rate with coating) and their values were given (Table 1). (Figure 9) show plot between %C (percentage coating efficiency) versus T (temperature in K). This figure indicated that percentage coating efficiency enhanced as temperatures varies in Nov to Feb months and their values were recorded in (Table 1). Figure 6 plotted between θ (surface coverage area) versus C (concentration in mM) and covered areas were produced by (6Z)-5, 8-dihydrazone- 5,8-dibenzo[a,c][8]annulene and TiO2 were mentioned in (Table 1). The results were shown that nanocoating compound occupied less surface areas with respect of electrospray. The surface coverage area developed by nanocoating and electrospray compound was calculated by formula θ = (1- K/Ko). (Figure 10) plotted between θ (surface coverage area) versus T (temperature) noticed that temperatures were varies from Nov to Dec but surface coverage area and electrospray values were increased and their values were written in (Table 1).
Figure 9: Vs C nanocoating and electrospray.
Figure 10: θ Vs T for nanocoating and electrospray.
Table 2:Thermal Parameters of Brass Sculpture in Winter Season by Nanocoating of (6Z)-5,8-dihydrazono-5,8-dibenzo[a,c][8] annulene [NC] in SO2 Medium.
Composite surface formation was studied by Arrhenius equation, Langmuir isotherm and others thermal parameters like activation energy, heat of adsorption, free energy, enthalpy and entropy and their values were recorded in (Table 2). (Table 2) Thermal Parameters of Brass Sculpture in Winter Season by Nanocoating of (6Z)-5,8-dihydrazono-5,8-dibenzo[a,c][8]annulene [NC] in SO2 Medium. Activation energy of without coating, with coating and electrospray coating were determined by Arrhenius equation d(logK)/dT = A – Ea/2.303RT and their values were recorded in (Table 2). The plot between logK versus 1/T was found to be straight line as shown in (Figure 11). The plot between log K and 1/T found to be straight line. It observed that activation before coating activation energy high but decreased after coating. These trends indicated that nanocoating compound adhered on the surface of base metal. Heat of adsorption was calculated by Langmuir isotherm log(θ/1-θ) = log(AC) – q/2.303R T and their values were mentioned in (Table 2). Its values were found to negative, it indicated nanocoating compound formed chemical bond with base metal. (Figure 12) log(θ/1-θ) versus 1/T proved results of heat of adsorption.Free energy values of nancoating compound were determined by formula ΔG = -2.303 RT log(33.3K) and their values were recorded in (Table 2). Their values found to be negative; it noticed that nanocoating compound adhered on the surface of base metal by chemical bond. Enthalpy and entropy values of nanocoating and electrospray compounds were calculated by transition state equation K=k T/N h eΔS/R e-ΔE/RT and their values were mentioned in (Table 2). These values were found to be negative which indicated these compounds adhered on the surface of metals. All thermal parameters versus T (temperature) plotted in (Figure 13) which indicated composite barrier formed on surface of base metal. Thermal parameters Values of TiO2 eleectrospray activation energy, heat of adsorption, free energy, enthalpy and entropy were written in (Table 3) and their plot against T (temperature) in (Figure 14). (Table 3) results indicated electrospray compound formed chemical bond with nanocoating compound. (Table 3) Thermal Parameters of Brass Sculpture in Winter Season by Electrospray of TiO2 in SO2 Medium Potentiostat results were determined with help of equation I = βa βc/2.3 (βa+βc) Ic and corrosion rate K=0.128 X Ic X( E/d) ( Ic is corrosion current, equivalent weight and d is density) and their values were written in (Table 4). (Figure 15) was plotted ΔE(corrosion potential versus I(corrosion current density). The results of (Table 4) observed that without coating corrosion potential high but with coating nanocoating and electrospray reduced corrosion potential. (Table 4) Potentiostat results in SO2 in meduim with nanocoating and electrospray.
Figure 11: logK Vs 1/T nanocoating and electrospray.
Figure 12: log(θ/1-θ) Vs 1/T nanocoating and electrospray.
Figure 13: Thermal parameters Vs T for nanocoating and electrospray.
Figure 14: Thermal parameters Vs T nanocoating and electrospray.
Table 3:Thermal Parameters of Brass Sculpture in Winter Season by Electrospray of TiO2 in SO2 Medium.
Table 4:Potentiostat results in SO2 in meduim with nanocoating and electrospray.
Figure 15: ΔE Vs Ic(mA) for nanocoating and electrospray.


It observed that winter season SO2 concentration increased. In this season humidity level found to more so it oxidized sulphur dioxide into sulphuric acid and created hostile environment for brass sculpture. It corroded zinc into zinc sulphate in longer period it produced leaching corrosion. Such types of corrosion controlled by the use of nanocoating of (6Z)-5,8-dihydrazono-5,8-dibenzo[a,c] [8]annulene and TiO2 electrospray. The results of activation energy, heat of adsorption, free energy, enthalpy and entropy values indicated that nanocoating compound adhered with chemical bonding. Thermal parameters results of electrospray confirmed that TiO2 bonded with (6Z)-5,8-dihydrazono-5,8-dibenzo[a,c][8] annulene chemical bonding. Both compound created composite barrier on the surface of base metal which produced anticorrosive barrier. The nanocoating compound developed lot of porosities during coating. These porosities blocked by electrospray and it increased coating efficiency and surface coverage area.

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Tuesday 30 July 2019

Lupine Publishers | Nanotechnology in Concrete: Small Things Shape a Great Future


Concrete changes the world. Nanotechnology changes the concrete world. The nano-engineered concrete can be intelligent, strong, durable, easy to fabricate, recyclable and eco-friendly. Its potential benefits include improved infrastructures reliability and longevity, enhanced structural performance and durability, improved safety against natural hazards and vibrations, reduced lifecycle costs in operating and managing infrastructures, and reduced burdens on resources, energy and environment.

Concrete related to sustainable development of human society

Figure 1: Concrete price and usage; b) Energy consumption for concrete production; c) The cumulative carbon sequestration from 1930 to 2013; d) Elemental composition of the earth; e) Cement demand prediction [1-5].
Concrete's excellent properties and low cost have made it tremendous quantity of concrete (4 billion cubic meters per year) the world's most widely used engineering material (Figure 1a). A has been consumed worldwide for infrastructure construction. China accounts for approximately 60% of the total concrete consumption with the per capita amount of 2 cubic meters. The manufacturing of cement, a key ingredient in concrete, has a significant impact on nature source, energy and environment. In fact, concrete has lower energy consumption and carbon emissions compared to other engineering materials (Figure 1b). According to recent research, as carbon sequestration, concrete can reabsorb a large fraction of CO2 released from cement production. From 1930 to 2013, carbonating concrete absorbed 43% of the cumulative CO2 emissions associated with the high-temperature calcination of carbonate minerals during cement production (Figure 1c). In addition, in terms of resource, it is almost impossible to find an alternative construction material to concrete. This is because O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K and Mg comprise 98% of the crustal composition, which are the main components of concrete (Figure 1d). In the long term, on the basis of the urban development of the developing countries and the world's population growth rate, concrete will continue to be massively consumed as construction materials in the whole world. Taking the developing countries such as China and India for example, concrete usage converted by the total amount of cement will nearly double in the coming several decades (Figure 1e). Therefore, concrete is the largest material foundation bearing the civilization in today’s society and even in future society. The production and utilization of concrete are closely related to source, energy and environmental issues, thus having a strong effect on the sustainable development of human society [1-5].

Improving concrete performance to meet the ever-increasing demand for infrastructure construction

Figure 2: Multi-component, multi-phase and multi-scale nature [4].
Concrete has a multi-component, multi-phase and multi-scale nature and is considered as the most complicated composite while fabricated with the simplest production process (Figure 2). The feature of thermodynamic metastability has an effect on the concrete volume stability. Under deformation, shrinkage and loading, it is vulnerable to interrupt or destroy homophase continuity and heterophase bonding. In addition, concrete is known for its brittleness with low tensile strength, poor deformation performance and high cracking tendency. The presence of cracks tends to weaken the integrity and bearing capacity of structures and severely affect their safety, serviceability and durability, causing potential safety problems on construction. Especially with the trend toward large-scale and complicated infrastructures, extreme service environment, multi-factor coupling and ever-enlarging application field, these problems are becoming more serious and facing with a plenty of new challenges as well. In this case, high- performance and smart/multifunctional concrete becomes the only way to implement the sustainable development of concrete structures. High-performance and smart/multifunctional concrete has excellent mechanical properties, durability and processability needed for structural material. Meanwhile, it also presents selfsensing, self-healing and self-adjusting features. Making use of high- performance and smart/multifunctional concrete can effectively enhance the safety, comfort and durability of infrastructures and maintain a coordinated relationship between infrastructure and environment.

Nanotechnology adding new impetus for developing high-performance and smart/multifunctional concrete

As shown in Figure 2, concrete is a multi-scale complex system. Generally, the normal aggregate in concrete has a particle size ranging from millimeters to centimeters and the particle size of ordinary cement itself is usually 7-200|im. However, cement hydrated phases are primary nano structured materials mainly condensed by C-S-H gel tens of nanometers in size. Therefore, due to its natural attribute, concrete has the properties of nanomaterials. In addition, the scientific community and industry are always spontaneous to manipulate the nano-scale behavior inside concrete using nanotechnology to enhance or modify concrete performance in the process of concrete development, such as nano crystals, mineral admixtures and chemical admixture used for concrete preparation. It should be recognized that nanotechnology in concrete is not a new technique. It is just attributed to the rapid development of nanotechnology in recent two decades improving the understanding of the nano-scale behavior inside concrete and enriching the methods for concrete reinforcement and modification via nanotechnology. In this manner, research in the application of nanotechnology in concrete reaches a very active period.
Awareness of nanotechnology applications in concrete starts at 2001. The addition of nano-SiO2 to concrete was first used for concrete reinforcement. After that, nano-ZrO2, nano-TiO2 and nanocarbon material were applied one after another for the enhancement and modification of concrete. Much work indicated that the big gains in mechanical, durable and functional properties of concrete were achieved by nano nonmetallic oxide and metallic oxide modification. The addition of nano-SiO2 increased the 3d/28d compressive and flexural strengths by 48.1%/48.7% and 45.6%/16.0%, respectively. Meanwhile, the addition of nano-SiO2 can increase the freeze-thaw resistance, chloride penetration and permeability, abrasion resistance and fire resistance of concrete [6]. The fracture toughness of concrete can be enhanced by 400% when nano-ZrO2 is used as fillers [7]. The flexural and compressive strengths of concrete with nano-TiO2 at age of 28 d achieve increases of 87% /6.69 MPa and 12.26%/12.2 MPa with respect to concrete without nano-TiO2, respectively. Nano-TiO2 can also endow concrete with the photocatalytic effect to decompose both organic pollutants and oxides such as NO, NO2 and SO2 [8]. Moreover, extensive research endeavors demonstrated the potential of various nano carbon materials including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and graphene for enhancing/modifying concrete materials [9].
Figure 3: Graphene platelets acting like�filters�for chloride ions [11].
The observed best performance enhancement of concrete with CNTs or CNFs include a relative/absolute enhancements of 79%/74MPa and 64.4%/5.6MPa in compressive and flexural strength [10], a 34.28% increase in tensile strength, a 270% increase in fracture toughness, a 14% increase in fracture energy, an over 600% improvement in Vickers’s hardness at the early ages of hydration, a 2200% increase in deflection, a 130% increase in ductility, an over 430% improvement in resilience and a 227% increase in Young’s modulus. Graphene can improve the tensile, flexural and compressive strength of concrete by 78.6%, 60.7% and 38.9%, respectively. The presence of CNTs obviously enhances the transport property and durability of concrete materials. Graphene significantly improves the moisture transport performance, the acid resistance and the chloride ion penetration resistance (as listed in Table 1 and Figure 3) of the concrete.
Table 1: Chloride migration coefficient of concrete with grapheme.
DRCM: Chloride migration coefficient from non-steady-state migration test
The electrical resistivity reduction extent of concrete materials than that of concrete without CNTs. The damping capacity of with CNTs/nano carbon black composite filler is 99.9%. The concrete with CNTs is 1.6 times than that of concrete without CNTs. thermal conductivity of CNTs concrete composites is 85% greater The addition of CNTs into concrete materials can lead to a 27%decrease in electromagnetic wave reflectivity at a frequency of 2.9 GHz. Additionally, the composites with CNTs, CNFs or graphene feature smart self-sensing (e.g. sensing stress, strain, crack, damage, temperature and smoke), self-heating and steel cathodic protection performances. Nano fillers not only can enhance/modify the also have strong impact on the rheology and workability of fresh concrete [11]. Nano fillers have higher surface energy compared with cement particle. Therefore, as shown in Figure 4, the addition of nano fillers raises the system energy of cementitious composites, thus importing negative entropy to the system of composites.
Figure 4: System of nano-engineered concrete [7].
The mechanisms of nano-core effect on the enhancement/ modification are mainly due to two aspects: intrinsically excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal and electromagnetic properties and morphology features (high aspect ratio); and promoting cement hydration, optimizing C-S-H gel structure and forming ultrafine and compact crystals, improving interfacial transition zone and pore structure, controlling nano-scale cracks, autogenous curing, improving early strength and decreasing autogenous shrinkage through nucleating effect (Figure 5).
Figure 5: Schematic diagram of effect of nano fillers on the hydration products growth around cement particles [11].


As a new industrial revolution, nanotechnology infiltrating in the field of civil engineering provides new impetus for developing high- performance and smart/multifunctional concrete. To restructure or modify material structural units in nanoscale via interpreting material genetic code and drawing the blueprint of nanoscale properties provides new theory and method to develop high- performance, durable, smart/multifunctional, and environmentally friendly concrete (Figure 6). The utilization of nanotechnology helps promote the understanding of concrete behavior, manipulate and design concrete performance, lower the concrete production and ecological cost, extend the service life of engineering infrastructures and reduce the relative demand of concrete. It is of profound significance to guide the sustainable development and application of concrete material and infrastructures.
Figure 6: Nano-engineered concrete based on nano-core effect.


The authors thank the funding supported from the National Science Foundation of China (51578110 and 51428801).

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An Introductory to Fasciolosis | Lupine Publishers

Journal of Veterinary Science| Lupine Publishers

Fasciolosis is a disease of sheep, cattle, goats and occasionally humans. It is caused by a trematode called Fasciola with the two most common species of Fasciola hepatica (F. hepatica) and Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica). The parasites encyst in the bile ducts and liver parenchyma of animals. Fasciolosis is common in marshy water bodies where favorable for its intermediate host. Snails of the genus Lymnae facilitate its survival and ubiquity worldwide. The disease causes serious economic losses annually, either directly or indirectly, by disrupting animal production. Therefore; this introductory review highlights on the occurrence, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of fasciolosis.


Fasciolosis (liver fluke) is one of the most common economically important parasitic diseases of domestic livestock, in particular cattle, sheep, goat and occasionally man. The disease is major cause for the considerable economic losses (direct or indirect) in cattle industry, mainly through mortality, liver condemnation, reduce production of milk, meat and expenditure for anthelmintics [1]. The disease is caused by digenean trematodes of the genus Fasciola, commonly known as liver flukes. The two species most commonly implicated, as the etiological agents of fasciolosis are F. hepatica and F. gigantica. It is a serious disease of grazing animal [2].
Loss due to fasciolosis is associated with mortality, reduced growth rate, reduction in weight gain and unthriftines, reduction in working power, condemnation in large number of infected liver, increased susceptibility to secondary infection and expense due to control measure [3].
The geographic distribution of Fasciola species is dependent on the distribution of suitable species of snails such as Lymnae natalensis and Lymnae truncatula, the most common intermediate hosts ‘and usually associated with herds and flocks grazing wet marshy land area. Both Lymnae species are needed for the parasites life cycle to be completed. According to Piedrafita et al. [4], the distribution of fasciolosis is associated with the favorable climatic and ecological conditions for development, spread and maturity of parasite and its life cycle stages in various areas. In view of the worldwide spread occurrence and zoonotic nature, fasciolosis has emerged as a major global and regional concern affecting all domestic animals and infection is most prevalent in regions with intensive cattle production [5].
The disease is found in more water lodged and marshy grazing filed condition anticipated to be ideal for the propagation and maintenance of high prevalence of fasciolosis. In Ethiopia, the highlands contain pockets of water logged marshy areas. this provide suitable habitats year round for the snail intermediate hosts [6]. More rational prophylactic program based on local epidemiological information is needed for sound fasciolosis control strategies in Ethiopia [3].
Liver fluke (F. hepatica) is a parasite affecting a range of livestock and other species. Final hosts in which it can develop to sexual maturity include livestock such as sheep, cattle, horses, pigs, goats, alpacas and deer. Other species include kangaroos, wallabies, rabbits, and humans. The adult worms inhabit the bile ducts and gall bladder of the infected animals, causing severe damage which may lead to death. The disease is characterized by anemia due to severe liver damage caused by immature fluke tunneling through the liver parenchyma with extensive hemorrhage that culminates in severe clinical disease. Several complication including weight loss, drop in milk production, submandibular edema, significant morbidity, mortality and diarrhea have been reported in liver fluke infection [7]. Therefore, this review highlights on the occurrence, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention and control of fasciolosis.

Liver Fluke Infection

Among many parasitic problems of farm animals, fasciolosis is a major disease, which imposes and indirect economic impact on livestock production, particularly of sheep and cattle. Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica are the two liver flukes commonly reported to cause fasciolosis in ruminants [8]. Fasciolosis caused by the trematode F. hepatica is a worldwide parasitic disease and common in ruminants, especially in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and swine. It occasionally affects humans. Once ingested, parasites migrate through the liver parenchyma to reach the bile ducts. The disease is responsible for considerable economic losses in the cattle industry, mainly through mortality, liver condemnation, reduced production of meat, milk, and wool, and expenditures for anthelmintic [8,9]. Fasciolosis is most common and wide spread disease affecting all species of ruminant animals. Liver fluke disease can be acute, sub-acute or chronic, depending on the size of the infection and how quickly it is acquired [10].
During the early stages, the flukes migrate rather extensively through the tissue of the liver casing considerable mechanical distraction, usually visible as tracks on the capsule of the liver. The damage is due to the feeding of the parasites on liver cells and there may be hemorrhage. The parasites feed almost exclusively on the hepatic cells. In older infection, there is excessive leucolytic infiltration and the terminal part of the migratory tract contains enormous number of invading leucolytics, broken hepatic cells and blood. The spines of the parasite irritate the tissue of the liver resulting in inflammation and fibrosis. The pathological manifestations depend mainly on the number of metacercariae of Fasciola are ingested in first attempt. This results in either acute or even per acute fasciolosis, sub-acute fasciolosis; or chronic fasciolosis. Acute fasciolosis is less common than chronic and is invariably seen in sheep [11].


Fascioliasis is a waterborne and food borne zoonotic disease caused by two parasites of class Trematoda, genus Fasciola; namely F. hepatica and F. gigantica. Humans are incidental hosts and become infected by ingesting contaminated watercress or water. The illness occurs worldwide, particularly in regions with intensive sheep or cattle production. Incidence of human infection has increased over the past 20 years. Because of the large numbers of people and animals infected worldwide, fascioliasis causes considerable morbidity. In children, fascioliasis is often associated with severe anemia, although it is seldom fatal [4].


Adult worm is a large leaf-shaped fluke, measuring 3cm in length by 1.5cm in width and brown to pale grey in color. There are two suckers, the oral sucker is smaller. The anterior end bearing the oral sucker forms a conical projection. The posterior end is rounded. The acetabulum is situated in a line with the two shoulders formed by the broadening of the conical projection posteriorly. The adult possesses two suckers for attachment. The oral sucker at the anterior end surrounds the mouth and the ventral, as the name indicates, is on that surface. The body surface is a tegument which is absorptive and is often covered with spines. The muscles lie vimmediately below the tegument. There is no body cavity and the organs are packed in a parenchyma (Figure 1). The digestive system is simple, the oral opening leading into a pharynx, esophagus and a pair of branched intestinal caeca which end blindly. Undigested material is presumably regurgitated. The excretory system consists of a large number of ciliated tame cells, which impel waste metabolic products along a system of tubules which ultimately join and open to the exterior (Figure 2). The nervous system is simple, consisting of a pair of longitudinal trunks connecting anteriorly with two ganglia [11,12].
Figure 1: The Structure of Fasciola hepatica [11].
Figure 2: Collected Fasciola worms from the slaughter house cattle [13].


The geographical distribution of trematode species is dependent on the distribution of suitable species of snails. The genus Lymnaea, in general and Lymnaea trancatula and Lymnaea natalensis, in particular are the most common intermediate hosts for F. hepatica and F. gigantica, respectively. Fasciola hepatica has a cosmopolitan distribution, mainly in temperate zones, while F. gigantica is found in tropical regions of Africa and Asia [13]. Different works so far conducted in Ethiopia reported variable prevalence rates of bovine fasciolosis in different localities of the country. Fasciola hepatica was shown to be the most important fluke species in Ethiopian livestock with distribution of over three quarter of the nation except in the arid north-east and east of the county [14]. The distribution of F. gigantica is mainly localized in the western humid zone of Ethiopia that encompasses approximately one fourth of the nation. In Ethiopia, F. hepatica and F. gigantica infections occur in areas above 1800m.a.s.l. and below 1200m.a.s.l, respectively, which has been attributed to variations in the climatic and ecological conditions such as rain fall, altitude, temperature and livestock management system [3,7,15]. There are many risk factors which expose the occurrence of the parasitic disease of fasciolosis like age, sex and body condition of the animals. According to Urquhart et al. [11] and Rickard [12], there are three main factors influencing the production of the large numbers of metacercariae necessary for outbreaks of fasciolosis.

Availability of suitable snail habitats

Lymnaea truncatula prefers wet mud to free water, and permanent habitats include the banks of ditches or streams and the edges of small ponds. Following heavy rainfall or flooding, temporary habitats may be provided by hoof marks, wheel ruts or rain ponds. Fields with clumps of rushes are often suspect sites. Though a slightly acid pH environment is optimal for Lymnaea, excessively acid pH levels arc detrimental, such as occur in peat bogs, and areas of sphagnum moss.


A mean day /night temperature of 10 °C or above is necessary both for snails to breed and for the development of Fasciola hepatica within the snail and all activity ceases at 5 °C. This is also the minimum range for the development and hatching of Fasciola hepatica eggs. However, it is only when temperatures rise to 15 °C and are maintained above that level, that a significant multiplication of snails and fluke larval stages ensues.


The ideal moisture conditions for snail breeding and the development of Fasciola hepatica within snails are provided when rainfall exceeds transpiration, and field saturation is attained. Such conditions are also essential for the development of fluke eggs, for miracidia searching for snails and for the dispersal of cercariae being shed from the snails.

Life Cycle

The essential point of the life cycle is that whereas one nematode egg can develop into only one adult, one trematode egg may eventually develop into hundreds of adults. This is due to the phenomenon of paedogenesis in the molluscan intermediate host, i.e. the production of new individuals by single larval forms. The adult flukes are always oviparous and lay eggs with an operculum or lid at one pole. In the egg, the embryo develops into a pyriform (pear-shaped), ciliated larva called a miracidium. The miracidium, propelled through the water by its cilia, does not feed and must, for its further development, find a suitable snail within a few hours. It is believed to use chemotactic responses to ‘home’ on the snail and, on contact, it adheres by suction to the snail and penetrates its soft tissues aided by a cytolytic enzyme. The entire process of penetration takes about 30 minutes after which the cilia are lost and the miracidium develops into an elongated sac, the sporocyst, containing a number of germinal cells. These cells develop into rediae which migrate to the hepato-pancrcas of the snail; rediae are also larval forms possessing an oral sucker, some flame cells and a simple gut. From the germinal cells of the rediae arise the final stages, the cereariae, although if environmental conditions for the snail are unsuitable, a second or daughter generation of rediae is often produced instead. The cercaria, young flukes with long tail emerge actively from the snail usually in considerable number. Once a snail is infected, cercariae continue to be produced indefinitely although the majority of infected snails die prematurely from gross destruction of the hepatopancreas. Typically the cercariae swim for some time, utilizing even a film of water, and within an hour or so attach themselves to vegetation, shed their tails and encyst. This stage is called a metacercaria. Encysted metacercariae have great potential for survival extending to months. Once ingested, the outer cyst wall is removed mechanically during mastication. Rupture of the inner cyst occurs in the intestine and depends on a hatching mechanism, enzymatic in origin, triggered by a suitable oxidationreduction potential and a CO2 system provided by the intestinal environment. The emergent juvenile fluke then penetrates the intestine and migrates to the predilection site where it becomes adult alter several weeks. Definitive host acquires infection by ingesting metacercariae on vegetation; fluke penetrates the small intestine to abdominal cavity, migrates to and penetrates liver in 4–6 days; migrates throughout liver for 4–7 weeks and then enters bile ducts and matures (Figure 3). Prepatent period is 8–12 weeks; may live for several years [11,12,14].
Figure 3: The Life Cycle of Fasciola hepatica [11].

Pathogenesis and Clinical Signs

These vary according to the phase of parasitic development in the liver and the species of host involved. Essentially the pathogenesis is two-fold; the first phase occurs during migration in the liver parenchyma and is associated with liver damage and hemorrhage. The second occurs when the parasite is in the bile ducts, and results from the haematophagic activity of the adult flukes and from damage to the biliary mucosa by their cuticular spines. Migration of immature flukes causes traumatic hepatitis and hemorrhage; anemia may result; migratory tracts eventually heal by fibrosis. Adults ingest blood and may also cause anemia; presence of adults causes extensive proliferation of the bile duct epithelium, cholangitis, and necrosis of the ductal wall; fibrosis of the lamina propria of the bile duct occurs that may eventually calcify [9,11,13].

Clinical disease occurs in three forms

Acute: Caused by short-term intake of massive numbers of metacercariae Over 2000; that invade the liver all at once; clinical signs include in appetence, weight loss, abdominal pain, anemia, ascites, depression, sudden death; course is only a few days; occurs primarily in sheep and goats.
Sub-acute: Also caused by intake of massive numbers of metacercariae, but over a longer period of time; clinical signs include in appetence, decreased weight gain or weight loss, progressive hemorrhagic anemia, liver failure, and death; course is 4–8 weeks.
Chronic: It occurs 4–5 months after the ingestion of moderate numbers, 200–500, of metacercariae. The principal pathogenic effects arc anemia and hypoalbuminaemia and more than 0.5ml blood per fluke can be lost into the bile ducts each day. Additional clinical signs include decreased feed intake and weight gain, reduced milk yield, anemia, emaciation, submandibular edema, ascites; cattle tend to exhibit chronic disease [11,12].


Fasciolosis should be considered when there are deaths, anemia or ill thrift in sheep or cattle grazing on fluke-prone country. In live animals, chronic fasciolosis is indicated by fluke eggs in fecal samples. The sampling technique is generally reliable in sheep but much less so in cattle. Diagnosis in dead animals relies on seeing mature or immature fluke in the liver. Necropsy will also identify other conditions that may be contributing to the problem. A serological test (ELISA) is also available for fasciolosis. It detects infection with both immature and adult fluke in a flock or herd, but it is not sensitive enough for diagnosis in individual animals [7,11].
The oval, speculated, golden brown eggs (130–150 × 65–90μm) must be distinguished from those of paramphistomes (rumen flukes), which are larger and clear. Eggs of F. hepatica cannot be demonstrated in feces during acute fasciolosis. In sub-acute or chronic disease in cattle, the number varies from day to day, and repeated fecal sedimentation may be required. Diagnosis can be aided by an ELISA (commercially available in Europe) that enables detection approximately 2–3 weeks after infection and well before the patent period. Plasma concentrations of γ-glutamyltransferase, which are increased with bile duct damage, are also helpful during the late maturation period when flukes are in the bile ducts. At necropsy, the nature of the liver damage is diagnostic. Adult flukes are readily seen in the bile ducts, and immature stages may be squeezed or teased from the cut surface [13,15].

Treatment and Control

The treatment recommended will depend on the nature of the disease. Some of the available anthelmintic are not effective against immature fluke and so are not recommended in acute fluke outbreaks. Also, they are less efficient for the strategic control of fasciolosis. The best prevention and control can be achieved with drugs such as Triclabendazole, which are effective against early immature and adult fluke [8,9].

Strategic Control

Due to the great biotic potential of F. hepatica and their intermediate host snails, only a continuous and coordinated strategic application of all available measures can provide economic control of the disease. Control should be on a preventive rather than a curative basis. As outlined by Ahmed et al. [8] and Fufa et al. [7], for effective control:
i. Use strategic anthelmintic treatment, to reduce the number of fluke in the host and the number of fluke eggs in pasture;
ii. Reduce the number of intermediate host snails using molluscicide and improve drainage.
iii. Manage fluke-prone areas, to reduce exposure to infection.


Fasciolosis is the major hurdle for ruminant production by direct or indirect losses at different parts of the world. As a result, the following measures should be taken to control the disease:
i. Dry marshy or wet areas to reduce snail population;
ii. Improve the management system (grazing practice, housing, as well as watering of animals);
iii. Use biological control methods like, frog, birds, etc.;
iv. Administration of appropriate anthelmintics like Triclabendazole while the animal is infected.

Authors Contribution

Mebrate Getabalew: — Retrieved all the necessary materials, and drafted the article;
Dawit Akeberegn: — Revised the draft and added improvements;
Tewodros Alemneh: — Further reviewed the article and got to be published.

Conflicting of Interests

Authors declare that no conflicting of interests.
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Monday 29 July 2019

Interior Environmental Design, Heal? | Lupine Publishers

Open Access Journal of Complementary & Alternative Medicine | lupine Publishers



Osteoporosis is a largely preventable disease that is characterized by bones that are porous and have a low density. Osteoporosis is associated with an increased risk of fractures. This condition can often be reduced, eliminated, or prevented by following healthy lifestyle guidelines. Public health leaders and advocates, government and non-governmental agencies, communities, health-care professionals are responsible for preventing osteoporosis. Nutritional deficiency, hormonal disorders, lack of exercise, immobilization and smoking can lead to poor development of bone and accelerate the loss of bone mass. Awareness and understanding are the keys to reducing the overwhelming incidence of osteoporosis. Great progress has been made in reaching out to the public through health campaigns, research, and publications; however, as the statistics show, the fight is not over.


Osteoporosis poses a significant public health issue, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Osteoporosis is a disease in which the density and quality of bone are reduced. This disease is characterized by bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures, especially of the spine, hip and wrist, although any bone can be affected. The likelihood of these fractures increases with age in both women and men. The loss of bone occurs silently and progressively. Often there are no symptoms until the first fracture occurs. Around the world, 1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men are at risk of an osteoporotic fracture. In fact, an osteoporotic fracture is estimated to occur every 3 seconds [1]. In adults, the daily removal of small amounts of bone mineral, a process called resorption, must be balanced by an equal deposition of new mineral if bone strength is to be preserved. When this balance tips toward excessive resorption, bones weaken (osteopenia) and over time can become brittle and prone to fracture (osteoporosis). There is evidence that fracture risk is increased in people on prolonged use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticoid therapy.

Who is at risk?

Awareness of risk factors can help to take steps to reduce bone mineral loss. Fixed risk factors like disorders and medications can weaken bone and affect balance [2]. Fixed risk factors include increasing age, female gender, family history of osteoporosis, ethnicity, menopause, hysterectomy, rheumatoid arthritis, hypogonadism in men etc. Most modifiable risk factors like alcohol, smoking, low body mass index, poor nutrition, vitamin D deficiency, eating disorders, physical inactivity also can directly impact bone biology and result in a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD).

Preventing osteoporosis

It is now known that osteoporosis is a preventable and treatable disease and not a normal part of ageing [3]. Although genetic factors play a significant role in determining whether an individual is at heightened risk of osteoporosis, lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity also influence bone development in youth and the rate of bone loss later in life. After mid-20s, bone thinning is a natural process and cannot be completely stopped. The thicker the bones, the less likely they are to become thin enough to break. Young women in particular need to be aware of their osteoporosis risk and take steps to slow its progress and prevent fractures. Optimal bone growth and development in youth is vital in the prevention of osteoporosis as it is an important determinant of the risk of osteoporotic fracture during later life. It is estimated a 10% increase of peak bone mass in children reduces the risk of an osteoporotic fracture during adult life by 50% [4]. Once peak bone mass has been reached, it is maintained by a process called remodeling. This is a continuous process in which old bone is removed and new bone is created. The renewal of bone is responsible for bone strength throughout life. Factors that cause a higher rate of bone remodeling will ultimately lead to a more rapid loss of bone mass and high risk of fractures. Adequate calcium levels are crucial for bone health and muscle performance, which are closely associated with balance and fall risk [5]. Vitamin D plays a major role to maintain serum calcium levels through enhancement of small-intestine absorption [6]. Sunlight exposure, fortified foods, egg yolks, saltwater fish, liver, are rich sources of Vitamin D. Due to increasingly indoor lifestyles, young people often don’t get enough vitamin D. Parents should encourage children spend more time participating in sports and outdoor physical activity and less screen time in front of computers or televisions to maintain a healthy level of this key vitamin.

How is osteoporosis diagnosed?

Though traditional X-rays cannot measure bone density, they can identify spine fractures. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the best technique for diagnosis and monitoring therapy. It is a low radiation X-ray used to measure spine and hip bone density and can also measure bone density of the whole skeleton. Other methods for diagnosing osteoporosis like Bone Turnover Markers (BTM) and radiological assessments have been used extensively in clinical trials and epidemiological studies.

Medical Management

Osteoporosis is potentially the most serious of menopause symptoms. The maximum bone loss occurs in first two years of menopause. Estrogen hormone therapy after menopause (previously referred to as hormone replacement therapy or HRT) has been shown to prevent bone loss, increase bone density, and prevent bone fractures. Estrogen is available orally, as a skin patch and in combination with progesterone as pills and patches. Progesterone given routinely along with estrogen helps prevent uterine cancer that might result from estrogen use alone [7]. It was thought that hormone therapy could ward off heart disease, osteoporosis, and cancer, while improving women’s quality of life. The findings emerged from clinical trials showed that long-term use of hormone therapy poses serious risks and may increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed medications to treat osteoporosis [8]. These drugs slow bone loss by causing certain cells involved in bone breakdown to undergo programmed cell death.

Regular exercise is essential

Regular exercise helps decreasing the risk of falls, probably because balance is improved, and muscle strength is increased. Build up slowly and aim to gradually increase the repetitions of each exercise over time. It is important to avoid exercises that can injure already weakened bones. In patients over 40 and those with heart disease, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and high blood pressure, exercise should be prescribed and monitored by physicians. Extreme levels of exercise like lifting heavy weights and forward bending may not be healthy for the bones. Exercises to correct postural deformities like Dowager’s hump should be incorporated in therapy.

Weight-bearing exercises

Several studies demonstrate the health benefits of exercise, including reduced risk of falls and fractures. Weight-bearing and muscle-strengthening exercises are ideal for osteoporosis prevention because it improves agility, posture, balance, and strength to prevent falls [5]. A statistically significant effect of exercise on BMD was reported by a systematic review investigating whether exercise could prevent bone loss and fractures in postmenopausal women [9]. It was found that high-force exercise involving lower limbs was the most effective exercise for femur neck BMD. Brisk walking is highly recommended, and patients can adapt their speed to the current fitness level. Sit-to-stand, Mini-squats, Calf raises, Wall press-up, Push-ups are good examples of exercises that patients can perform at home. Low-impact weight-bearing exercises like aerobics, using stair-step machines, fast walking on a treadmill are advised if high force exercises are contraindicated.

Muscle-strengthening exercises

Numerous studies have shown that strength training can play a role in slowing bone loss, and several show it can even build bone [10,11]. This is tremendously useful to help offset age-related declines in bone mass. Activities that put stress on bones can nudge bone-forming cells into action. Body weight exercises like squats, sit to stand; rising up on your toes can be performed at home. Lifting weights, using elastic exercise bands and using weight machines use muscle strength, where the action of the tendons pulling on the bones boosts bone strength. High-impact weight-bearing exercises help build bones and keep them strong. Cycling and swimming do not cause positive effects on BMD; thus, these are not the most suitable exercises for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis [12]. Swimming is neither a weight-bearing exercise nor a strengthtraining exercise. This means that if you are trying to prevent or fight osteoporosis, swimming should not be the only workout that you do.

Diet is Important

Many of the nutrients and food components we consume may influence bone by various mechanisms, including alteration of bone structure, the rate of bone metabolism, the endocrine and/ or paracrine system, and homeostasis of calcium and possibly of other bone-active mineral elements [13]. The most important nutrients for people with osteoporosis are calcium and vitamin D. Vitamin D helps body absorb calcium. Postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis can be prevented by adequate calcium intake during growth. Due to the accelerated muscular, skeletal and endocrine development, reduced intake of calcium and vitamin D during periods of growth can have a negative influence on bone development [14]. Bone mineral deposition during pubertal growth appears to depend on dietary absorption of calcium, and on reducing its excretion, and this is dependent on adequate Vitamin D status. A well-balanced diet with plenty of milk, fish, fruits and vegetables, cheese, and yogurt is important for bone health. The presence of lactose, caseinate and citrate in milk and dairy products helps better calcium absorption in relation to other dietary calcium sources. Vegetables with dark green leaves are also sources of calcium, but the calcium they contain has low bioavailability [15]. Osteoporosis experts recommend 800 to 1,200IU of vitamin D per day.

Preventing falls

Fall prevention helps prevent osteoporosis-related morbidity. Interventions include vision and hearing correction, removing trip or fall hazards, evaluating suspected neurologic problems, avoiding medications that cause imbalance, and advising hip pad protectors for those with significant risk. A person with osteoporosis is especially at risk of breaking bones from falling because the bones are so much weaker than normal healthy bones. Certain steps that can make a house safer for someone with osteoporosis is shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Steps to prevent falls.
The most effective treatment is provided by multidisciplinary approach involving physical therapist, psychologist, and nutritionist for consultation. Clinicians should consider risk-assessment to estimate absolute fracture risk and appropriate pharmacologic agents to prevent osteoporosis are to be prescribed [16].

Life style factors

Maintaining healthy habits can also reduce the risk or severity of osteoporosis. Smoking is an independent risk factor for osteoporosis as it reduces the amount of estrogen the body produces, and alcohol hinders calcium absorption [17]. It is also critical to maintain a healthy body weight. Nutrition is a modifiable pathogenic factor for osteoporosis. A holistic approach to bone health combining nutrition, physical activity and fall prevention is the key. Impactful public health education initiatives can create awareness about osteoporosis. Social media like Facebook groups and Twitter that provide a number of tools and resources as well as a forum for people to discuss osteoporosis shall be considered. Community programs with non-profit organizations reinforced at the local level can extend the program’s reach and messages.


Studies should be conducted to quantify the status of bone health of at-risk population, their level of awareness and steps to improve bone health. This small investment will pay rich dividends in the long run by preventing the occurrence of fractures and improving the bone health and quality of life. Health workers must work together to improve health literacy and prevention awareness to ensure that people understand the principles of bone health.

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Lupine Publishers: The Biodiversity of Aquatic Gastropods in the Step...

Lupine Publishers: The Biodiversity of Aquatic Gastropods in the Step...: Earth and Environment journals | Lupine Publishers   Abstract This study describes the species diversity, abundance and bioma...

Friday 26 July 2019

The Biodiversity of Aquatic Gastropods in the Steppe Zone the West Siberian Plain (Western Siberia, Russia) | Lupine Publishers

Earth and Environment journals | Lupine Publishers


This study describes the species diversity, abundance and biomass of gastropods in the ecosystems of the southern part of Western Siberia (Karasukskii district, Novosibirsk Oblast). Distribution and Quantitative Characteristics of Common Species of Gastropoda are calculated. Twenty-one species of snails belonging to seven families were recorded, Lymnaeidae, Planorbidae, Bulinidae, Physidae, Bithynhdae, Succineidae, and Zonitidae. The biodiversity of mollusks was studied using the Shannon- Weaver index.


The ecology of pond snails has been studied in the waterbodies of the central part of European Russia [1], but the authors emphasize the necessity of conducting similar studies in Siberia, and in other regions of our country. Gastropoda are widely distributed in the water bodies of the southern part of Western Siberia. They are an important component of benthic communities and take part in a number of trophic relationships. Some information about the ecology of freshwater snails’ species is presented in the publications [2-4] but many aspects are still poorly studied. In particular, quantitative data on the communities of mollusks are scanty [5,6]. We, in a previous work [7] Jacquard index biodiversity gastropods are calculated. The aim of the present investigation was to identify the occurrence and distribution of freshwater snails in the lake, rivers systems from the steppe zone the West Siberian Plain.

Materials and Methods

The species composition and biomass of snails in August of 2009 were studied (Novosibirsk Oblast, south of Western Siberia). Samples were collected in different parts in the Karasuk River in the upstream(near the villages of Bystrukha N 54026’ 53,2’’; E 800 55’ 50,5’ and Chernovka N 540 09’ 53,2’’; E. 800 02’ 54,2’) and downstream near the villages of Gramotino and Sorochikha (N 500 45’ 19,4’’; E. 780 20’ 15,1’ and N 530 43’ 19,7’’; E 770 56’ 29,5’), and in six lakes of the Karasuk system: Astrodym N 53036’ 59,4’’; E 770 48’ 04,7’, Krivoye (reaches: Blagodatnoye N 530 49’ 59,3’’; E. 780 03’ 17,3’’, Sopatoye N 530 48’ 28,7’’; E 78002’ 18,5’’ and Gusinoye N 530 48’ 13,0’’; E 78004’ 00,8’’), Krotovo N 530 43’ 30’’; E 770 51’ 31’’, Kusgan N 53044’ 23’’; E 770 53’25’’, Melkoye N 530 47’ 37,9’’; E 780 16’34,91’’, Titovo N 530 45’ 25,8’’; E 770 56’13,2’’.
The hydrological and hydrochemical characteristics of the rivers and lakes in steppe zone in the West - Siberian Plain are presented in the study by Savchenko (2010). The study was based at the Karasuk Field Station (Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals Russian Academy of Sciences; Karasukskii district, Novosibirsk region). Mollusks were collected according to the standard technique [8]. For a quantitative analysis of snails in the lake-river systems they were collected by hand from sites of 0.25 m2 (50х50 cm). The control sites were in open parts and in macrophyte stands at a depth of 0.1-1.1 m. To determine biomass, the collected mollusks were dried on a filter paper for ≥1 min and weighed. The species identification was made according to the shell and genital system using the keys [9,10]. The ICA index (index of copulatory apparatus) was one of the major criteria for the species definition of mollusks. The species definition within the Lymnaeidae index for mature specimens into account [6].


Species Composition of Gastropods

In the Karasuk river - lakes system, of 21 species from 7 families of gastropods were recorded: Pond Snail - [Lymnaeidae]; Lymnaea (Radix) auricularia (L.,1758), L. (Peregriana) balthica (L., 1758); L. (P.) fontinalis (Studer, 1820), L. (P.) ovata (Drap., 1805), L. (P.) ampla (Hartmann, 1821), L. (P.) tumida (Held, 1836), and Lymnaea (Stagnicola) saridalensis (Mozley, 1934) and Great Pond Snails (Lymnaea) stagnalis (L., 1758), L. (L.) fragilis (L., 1758), L. (L.) doriana (Bourguignat, 1862); Ramshorn snails, Planorbis planorbis (L., 1758), Anisus vortex (L., 1758), A. contortus (L.,1758), Segmentina nitida (Mull., 1774) [Planorbidae], and Planorbarius corneus (L., 1758) [Bulinidae]; Physa fontinalis (L., 1758), Aplexa nypnorum (L., 1758) [Physidae]; Bithynia tentaculata (L., 1758) and B. troscheli (Paasch, 1842) [Bithyniidae]. Terrestrial gastropods were defined by genus, Succinea sp. [Succineidae] and Zonitoides sp. [Zonitidae].
Figure 1: Distribution (%) of gastropods in the Karasuk River and lakes of the Karasuk system
Table 1: Abundance and biomass of gastropods and the Shannon index in water objects from the Karasuk system.
Sixteen gastropod species were recorded in the river and 20 in the lakes (Figure 1). Fifteen species were common for both the river and the lakes. The snails L. (P.) ovata were found in the river only and five species were found only in the lakes: (L. (L.) doriana and L. (P.) ampla, only in the Astrodym lake; S. nitida only in the Krotovo lake; A. nypnorum only in the Melkoye lake). Ramshorn snails P. corneus were found in the Krivoye Krotovo and Titovo lakes. Gastropoda in modern freshwater water bodies (the steppe zone West Siberian Plain) are represented by Pulmonata and Prosobranchia species. Both secondary aquatic pulmonate snails (four families) and terrestrial species (two families) were recorded in the study area. The terrestrial snails inhabit plants that grow close to the water’s edge and appear in the samples of aquatic species. Prosobranchia snails are primarily aquatic; they are the most ancient colonizers of the continental water bodies and are represented by only one family, Bithyniidae. Both bithyniid snails were recorded only in the upper stream of the Karasuk River (close to Bystrukha Village) and in Krotovo Lake [11].

Assessment of the Abundance and Biomass of Gastropods

The abundance of snails in the river varied from 10 up to 192 ind./m2 (Table 1). Lymnaeidae snails dominated, followed by Bithyniidae snails were sub-dominants. The Shannon-Weaver index, as calculated under the gastropod population density, indicated an increase of the species diversity from 1.4-1.5 bit/ind. (upper stream) up to 1.8-1.9 bit/ind. (lower stream). The maximum abundance of snails in the lakes varied from 49 up to 400 ind./m2. (Blagodatnoye reach and Melkoye). In lakes the Shannon-Weaver index varied from 0.56 bit/ind. (Kusgan) up to 1.9 bit/ind. (Titovo; Sopatoye reach). The maximum biomass of gastropods in the river varied from 21.7 to 142.9 g/m2; or in lakes from 9.4 to 369.8 g/ m2 (Blagodatnoye reach and Melkoye). Lymnaeidae snail’s biomass were dominated by, both in the river and in the lakes [12,13]. It should be mentioned that high abundance did not always correlate with high biomass. Thus, the high abundance (192 ind./m2) of L. stagnalis corresponded to the biomass 1.26 g/ m2, which can be explained by the prevalence of young snails in the samples. Although an adult L. stagnalis can weigh 4.9 grams.
Twenty-one species of snails belonging to seven families were recorded, Lymnaeidae, Planorbidae. Bulinidae, Physidae, Bithynhdae, Succineidae, and Zonitidae. All the recorded mollusk species are common in water bodies that are characterized by slow cur rents, in stagnant (mostly perennial) and semilotic water pools; they are common species in the southern part of Western Siberia. Lymnaeidae snail’s biomass were dominated by, both in the river and in the lakes.

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