Friday 29 November 2019

Lupine Publishers | Excellent Crystal Coloration and An Extraordinary Improvements of Developing Synthetic Quartz Single Crystals Growth and Defects

Lupine Publishers- Organic and inorganic chemical sciences

The analysis of the impurity content crystals grown in sodium carbonate solution is carried out using flame technique. Colored crystals have been produced from aqueous solutions of potassium carbonate under laboratory conditions and using a steel autoclave. The seeds were slices cut parallel to the planes (0001). With the impurity of aluminum and irradiation, defective color centers have generated quartz coloration phenomenon. This is occurred on the base of the electrical balance by exchanging aluminum ions with tetravalent silicon ions in the presence of alkali elements (monvalent) i.e. Na+ or Li+. Interestingly, the current paper introduces a method suggests the utilization of silica-rich rocks to develop the growth of large crystals of synthetic quartz.
Keywords: Metallic impurity, Quartz, Crystalline, Piezoelectric, Aluminum, Flame photometric emission


Until recently, all the quartz required for the production of oscillator crystals for frequency control has been obtained from natural resources. Although quartz is one of the most abundant minerals in the earth’s crust, it is only found in large crystals of the required quality in a few isolated regions. During the past 20 years, work has been carried out to develop processes for the controlled growth of quartz in the laboratory [1,2]. Considerable success has been obtained by many teams [3], crystals of piezoelectric-quality weighing over 1 lb. having been grown [4]. All the modern processes used for the growth of synthetic quartz have been developed by pioneering works [5,6] in the current century. Although the methods adopted by various workers in this field are basically similar, there are certain fundamental differences which affect the properties of the crystals. Because of its glass forming properties and its allotropic modifications it is not possible to grow quartz from the vapor or the melt. Growth from solution must be used and as quartz is virtually insoluble in aqueous media under ordinary ambient conditions it is necessary to use elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain sufficient solubility. These so-called hydrothermal conditions are probably similar to those in which much natural quartz has been formed. At temperatures approaching 400°C and pressures of 1000 atm (about 7 tons/in.2) quartz is readily soluble in alkaline solutions such as sodium carbonate.

Materials and Methods

Crystal Growing Technique

A schematic diagram of the apparatus used by the authors is shown in Figure 1. In what will be called the standard process, a steel autoclave constructed to withstand high pressures has seed crystals suspended from the lid and a supply of crushed meltinggrade quartz at the bottom. The autoclave is about 80% filled with a solution containing 88 g/L of sodium carbonate and sealed. The simple furnace used consists of a hotplate on which the autoclave stands surrounded by micaceous-flake thermal insulation. By this means a temperature gradient is established so that it is hotter at the bottom in the region of the nutrient crushed quartz than at the top where the seeds are located. Under the working conditions, the autoclave is filled with a single-phase fluid. The pressure developed being a function of the temperature and of the percentage of the space originally occupied by the solution at room temperature. The temperature at the base of the autoclave is controlled at about 400°C and the temperature at the seeds reaches equilibrium some 40°C lower. The temperature gradient along the length of the autoclave is not uniform, a fall of about 20°C occurring across the metal at the base and most of the remaining drop being across the nutrient. The space above the nutrient is approximately isothermal and the supersaturation in this region remains constant. Thus, crystals can be grown at approximately the same rate of growth in any part of the autoclave.
Figure 1: Diagram of apparatus for the growth of synthetic quartz.
For a given design of the autoclave, the rate of growth is dependent on seed orientation, pressure, temperature and temperature differential. The seed orientation which has been adopted in most of the work to be described is the basal plane or Z-cut. Figure 2 shows the relation between this cut and the minor rhombohedral or T-cut which has also been used as a seed for the growth of synthetic quartz. It is shown subsequently that the seed orientation not only affects the rate of growth but also has a marked effect on the way in which impurities are incorporated in the crystal. It is most convenient to control the rate of growth by means of the temperature difference and this is done by adjusting the flow of solution but not exceed a certain maximum, which, for the conditions used in the standard process, is about 0.5mm/day on each side of the seed measured in the direction of the optic axis. In fact, the visual quality is in some respects a misleading criterion and the measurements of the mechanical damping recorded in Table 1; show that a progressive improvement in crystalline perfection takes place as the growth rate is reduced. As it happens, for most practical applications the quality corresponding to 0.5mm/day is adequate but for especially stringent requirements it may be necessary to employ a lower growth rate or an alternative growing technique. A small pilot plant has been set up to grow crystals by the standard process. A growth of 15mm takes place in a period of about a month, the resulting crystals weighing about 135g.
Figure 2: Relationship between crystals grown on the basal plane (Z-cut) and the minor rhombohedral plane (z-cut).
Table 1: Mechanical damping of quartz

Results and Discussion

Influence of impurities

The standard process recrystallizes a low-grade quartz-which due to size and imperfections such as twinning is unsuitable for piezoelectric use into crystals of a size and quality which are ideally suited to this purpose. However, the melting grade quartz used as nutrient still has to be imported and considerable work has been carried out over the last 5 years to develop processes which can be used with relatively impure nutrient materials. Reasonable success has been obtained using flint and a variety of quartzites. Early in this investigation it was found that quartz could be grown on Z-cut seeds using impure nutrient materials, but that the quality, particularly of large crystals, was not good enough for piezoelectric use. It is now known that the poor quality is due to the incorporation of impurities in the synthetic crystal during growth. However, it was found that it was possible to grow crystals of piezoelectric quality by modifying the solution in which the crystals were grown. Good crystals have been grown from flint and impure quartzite by using a solution containing 40g/L Na2CO3, 33g/L NaOH, and 3.4g/L NaF. Further examination of a number of different quartzites showed that many of them could be used satisfactorily with the standard process; these are referred to as class A quartzites. It is now known that the difference between class A and class B quartzites (class B being those quartzites which require the modified process) lies in the type of accessory minerals which are associated with the quartz. In particular, the structure of the feldspar, which is commonly the primary accessory mineral in quartzites, plays an important role in deciding whether the material will be class A or B [7,8].
Work by Dickson et al. [9] using a paramagnetic resonance technique has shown that aluminum is the impurity which affects the quality of synthetic quartz crystals grown from class B materials using the standard sodium carbonate solution. This result has been corroborated by spectrographic analysis on a number of specimens. In addition, the direct test has been made by deliberately adding aluminum in a number of forms along with a pure quartz nutrient. Such adulterated quartz now acts as a class B nutrient and crystals grown from it using the standard solution have the habit and poor quality of a crystal grown under similar conditions from flint or a class B quartzite. Further, by using the modified solution, the defects can again be overcome. Figure 3 shows four crystals which illustrate this result. The crystals from left to right were grown from nutrients and in solutions. The most notable feature which can be seen from the photograph is the nature of the growth surface approximating to (0001). This surface is smooth on the crystals grown from quartz in sodium carbonate solution and from quartz with aluminum in the modified solution, but it is rough and pitted in the case of the crystals grown from flint and from quartz with aluminum, in sodium carbonate solution. It will be shown that the nature of the growth surface is closely related to the manner in which aluminum is incorporated in synthetic quartz grown on Z-cut seeds.
Figure 3: Crystals grown to illustrate the importance of aluminum as an impurity in low-quality nutrients.
It has been known for some time that when natural quartz is irradiated with X-ray or any other ionizing radiation, the material darkens. Grasse et al. [10] studied this phenomenon in detail and showed that the darkening produced in natural quartz is often non-uniform showing a banded structure. The darkening occurs in sheets parallel to the major rhombohedral planes and is therefore connected with the growth of the crystal, probably being associated with changes in the environment in which the crystal grew. When large crystals of synthetic quartz were first grown by the authors, their behavior under X-irradiation was determined. Figure 4 shows the result of irradiating an X-cut section of a synthetic quartz crystal grown on a Z-cut seed. It can be seen that the central region corresponding to the natural quartz seed has darkened uniformly and that there are two regions beneath the minor rhombohedral faces which have also darkened rather more intensely than has the seed. The remainder of the synthetic growth has not darkened under this dose. The diagram in Figure 5 shows the region under the minor rhombohedral face on a larger scale. The triangular region abc corresponds to growth which has taken place on the minor rhombohedral face as it develops. Spectrographic analyses of material taken from various regions of a number of crystals grown by the standard process have shown that the total aluminum concentration in the growth on the Z-cut orientation is commonly less than 40 parts in 106 atomic replacements. However, in the growth under the minor rhombohedral face the aluminum content may be 10 times this figure, i.e. 400 parts in 106. The impurity content of the melting-grade nutrient lies between these two figures and the low aluminum concentration in quartz grown on a Z-cut seed is in part due to the “scavenger action” of the growth on the minor rhombohedral faces which are formed during the growth. This also illustrates a general result found in the growth of synthetic quartz, namely that it is easier to introduce impurities during growth on the minor rhombohedral face than on the basal plane.
Figure 4: Photomicrograph of an X-cut section from a synthetic quartz crystal grown on a Z-cut seed from a pure melting-grade quartz nutrient after X-irradiation.
If, however, there is a large excess of aluminum in the system, it is found that the crystals grown on the basal plane will darken readily in a characteristic way as shown in Figure 6. In addition to the darkening of the seed crystal and the growth under the minor rhombohedral face, there is darkening of the primary growth in the form of distorted narrow-angled cones directed along the c-axis. These cones terminate in the rough, pitted growth surface and are apparently associated with the pits. This can also be seen from the bands which run parallel to the seed surface. These bands which are regions of either more or less intense darkening than the surrounding material are reproduced precisely on both sides of the seed. It can, therefore, be deduced that these bands are produced either by changes of the temperature or pressure in the autoclave or, what is more likely, by changes in the concentration of aluminum in the solution. These bands will therefore represent the nature of the growth surface at the particular time when they are formed. The discontinuities in these bands tend to follow the boundaries between the cones of darkening.
Figure 5: Diagram showing the X-ray darkening of quartz deposited in the accessory growth on the minor rhombohedral face.
Figure 6: Characteristic X-ray darkening pattern found in an X-cut section of a synthetic quartz crystal grown on a Z-cut seed in the presence of a large excess of aluminum.

Mechanism of growth

The characteristic cone darkening structure can be used to obtain a model for the mechanism of growth on the basal plane. This is illustrated in Figure 7. It is assumed that growth takes place independently on a large number of centers in contrast to growth on a habit face where only a limited number of centers are active and growth takes place by sheets spreading across the growth surface. The growth centers on the basal plane may be associated with spiral dislocations but there is, as yet, no direct evidence for growth spirals. If it is now assumed that quartz is deposited on the individual centers at different rates it will be seen that those which are growing faster overtake their more slowly growing neighbors and render them inactive. In the schematic diagram in Figure 7, all nine centers are active at the beginning of the growth; at later stage only centers 2, 4, 6 and 8 are active and eventually only centers 4 and 6. If the aluminum incorporation is uniform on any one growth centre but differs from one to the next, it will be seen that this gives rise to the characteristic darkening pattern. Figure 7 also shows photomicrographs of the growth surfaces at various stages in the growth together with darkening patterns at similar stages for sections cut perpendicular to the c-axis. The individual “cobbles”, which are the termination of the growth cones in the surface of the crystal, and the tine structure in the darkening patterns both tend to become coarser as the growth proceeds. This is in agreement with the suggested growth mechanism.
Figure 7: Illustrating the mechanism of growth of synthetic quartz on Z-cut seeds.
The nature of the rough, pitted growth surface obtained when quartz is grown on the basal plane in the presence of a large excess of aluminum cannot be directly explained in terms of the suggested mechanism. Figure 8a is a photomicrograph of the surface and shows clearly that the pits have no obvious crystallographic orientation. However, crystals have been grown with only just sufficient aluminum present in the system to commence the incorporation of aluminum by the above mechanism. In this case, the aluminum apparently only goes into the growth on isolated centers and produces a growth surface of the type shown in Figure 8b. It will be seen that certain of the larger cobbles have triangular pits at their centre. The relation between these pits and the rough growth surface produced by a large excess of aluminum is shown in Figure 8c and 8d. Figure 8c shows the growth surface of a crystal grown in the presence of a somewhat larger concentration of aluminum than that of Figure 8b. The pits are here more numerous and are commencing to overlap so that they interfere and lose their obvious crystallographic orientation. The crystal shown in Figure 8d has a rough surface similar to that in Figure 8a and has been lapped to remove most of the disturbed surface. The bottoms of the pits of the rough surface show approximately the same form as those in Figure 8b. The characteristic rough surface is, therefore, formed from a large number of pits which overlap and interfere until the shape and symmetry of the pits is completely lost.
Figure 8: The nature of the rough growth surface formed in the presence of a large excess of aluminum. (a) Rough growth surface. (b) Isolated pits. c) Interfering pits. d) Rough surface after most of the damage has been removed by lapping.
Figure 9: Diagram of a pit formed at the center of a growth cobble.
The nature of the individual pits is more readily seen by reference to Figure 9, which shows a diagram of a single cobble and its pit. The sides of the pit form reasonably flat faces which have been indexed using a microscope. The reason for the formation of such a high index face, if it is a true face, in the presence of excess aluminum is not understood. Figure 9 also shows a section containing the c-axis. If as appears likely, the pit is associated with the incorporation of aluminum, on irradiating such a section the growth cones giving rise to the cobbles with pits at their centers will darken readily. This is shown diagrammatically in Figure 9 while Figure 10 shows a photomicrograph which clearly illustrates this phenomenon. It has been seen that when crystals are grown in a large excess of aluminum, this aluminum is not incorporated uniformly in the crystal as it grows but is taken up preferentially on certain centers at the expense of the neighboring centers. As the lattice spacing will be a function of the aluminum concentration, it is reasonable to expect that strains will be set up at the boundaries between regions of different aluminum content. This strain can be seen readily by examining sections cut either parallel to or perpendicular to the c-axis in a polarizing microscope between crossed nicols. Parallel to the c-axis there are deep fissures found under the rough growth surface where the stress exceeds that necessary to produce fracture. Instead of the crystal appearing dark as it should in the extinction position, the field is crossed by bands of light and dark produced by the strain. The same phenomenon is, perhaps, more readily studied by examining sections cut perpendicular to the c-axis. Depending on the angle between the polarizer and analyzer the section should appear to be a uniform color when viewed in white light. Instead, a section cut from a crystal which has non-uniform aluminum incorporation will have a mottled appearance. This is shown in Figures 11 & 12, which are photomicrographs of two sections of the same crystal, Figure 11 being taken near the seed crystal and Figure 12 near the end of the growth. This again illustrates the way in which the number of active growth centers decreases during the growth. In this particular example, the density of active centers has decreased by a factor of the order of 20 in about 5mm of growth along the c-axis.
Figure 10: Photomicrograph of an X-cut section showing the relationship between the cones of darkening and the pits.
Figure 11: Strain pattern observed in crossed nicols in a Z-cut section of a crystal containing a large excess of aluminum (Section taken near seed/growth interface).
Figure 12: As Figure 11, Section taken near end of growth.
Comparison of the results of experiments in which crystals are grown on Z-cut seeds in the presence of high and low concentrations of aluminum shows that the mechanism by which aluminum is incorporated in the growing crystal is dependent on the concentration of impurity in the system. This has been studied more closely by a set of controlled experiments in which the concentration of aluminum, added as y-alumina, was steadily increased. Six crystals grown in the presence of aluminum deliberately added to the nutrient in proportions varying from 0.05 to 2.50% by weight are shown in Figure 13. The concentration of aluminum added to the nutrient for the six crystals numbered 1 to 6 from left to right is given in the caption. Examining the nature of the growth surface, it will be seen that the first two crystals show no obvious signs of the inclusion of aluminum. By contrast, crystals 3-5 show the characteristic rough growth surface, crystal 5 being so strained that the growth is hardly single crystalline. With 2.5% aluminum added to the nutrient (crystal 6) all growth is prevented. Further experiments carried out using concentrations of aluminum in the range 0.10-0.25%, show that the results are not consistent, in that a number of experiments carried out with the same aluminum concentration sometimes give a rough growth surface corresponding to non-uniform impurity incorporation and at other times give the smooth cobbled surface of the pure crystal. This behavior can be explained in terms of the suggested growth mechanism as follows in this paragraph. For low concentrations of aluminum in the system, the incorporation apparently takes place uniformly. Most of this aluminum is probably interstitial as the material only darkens slightly under X-irradiation. For high concentrations, it has been seen that the aluminum is taken up preferentially on certain growth centers. This can be understood, when it is considered that the energy required introducing an impurity atom is a function of the number of impurity atoms already incorporated in the growth on this centre. As the number of impurity atoms incorporated increases, the distortion of the lattice becomes greater and it becomes easier to include more impurity atoms. Thus, once the concentration of aluminum in the growth on a given centre exceeds a certain figure, further aluminum atoms will tend to be taken up preferentially on this centre at the expense of the neighboring centers. In a physical system of this type, the probability that non-uniform inclusion will take place and is a rapidly changing function of the concentration of impurity in the nutrient. It can be seen that this qualitative analysis explains the observations. For low concentrations of aluminum, the probability of non-uniform take-up is very small. As the concentration is increased the stage is reached where there is a reasonable chance that the aluminum is incorporated non-uniformly. This is the region where the results will not be consistent. At still higher concentrations, non-uniform inclusion will be the rule.
Specimens cut from the crystals shown in Figure 13 have been analyzed for aluminum and sodium using spectrographic and flame photometric techniques, respectively. The results are given in Table 2 in terms of the percentage atomic replacement of silicon by these elements have showed that the concentrations of sodium and aluminum are of the same order for low concentrations of aluminum added to the nutrient. This can be attributed to the sodium content tendency to saturate while the aluminum content continues to increase. It seems reasonable to conclude that the substitutionally added aluminum is associated with a sodium atom situated interstially. This centre would be responsible for the visible darkening produced by X-irradiation [11], a model consistent with that suggested by Ratheneau [12]. The excess aluminum found when the concentration added to the nutrient is large, could be present either as interstitial atoms or as two substitutional atoms associated with an oxygen vacancy. There is, at present, no evidence to distinguish between these two alternatives. In discussing the incorporation of impurities in synthetic quarts, some mention must also be made of work which has been carried out in attempts to include impurities other than aluminum [13]. It is well known that small monovalent ions in particular lithium and sodium can readily be introduced into the quartz lattice under the action of an electric field. These ions lie interstitially in the “tunnels” which are parallel to the c-axis in the quartz structure. It has already been shown that sodium is present in all synthetic quartz grown by the authors. Attempts have been made to introduce a number of other elements which might be expected to substitute for silicon in the lattice. In general, it has been found extremely difficult to introduce impurities into quarts grown on the basal plane. This result would appear to be different from that found by other workers in this field who have used seeds cut parallel to the minor rhombohedral face. In addition to aluminum, attempts have been made to incorporate the elements in growth on Z-cut seeds. Of these elements only, germanium has been successfully incorporated. Bearing in mind the similar ionic radii of silicon and germanium, it is not surprising to find that germanium will readily go into quartz as a substitutional impurity. Large amounts of germanium can be taken up by the quartz lattice without setting up measurable strain. As would be expected, the centre is not sensitive to X-irradiation. It is interesting to note that boron is not taken up, although its small size and its valence of three would, at first sight, make it an ideal atom for incorporation in the quartz lattice. No explanation is known for this behavior.
Figure 13: Crystals grown in the presence of increasing concentrations of aluminum. Aluminum by weight of quartz nutrient: (1) 0.05%, (2) 0.125%, (3) 0.25%, (4) 0.50%, (5) 1.25%, and (6) 2.50%.


A striking example has been the growth of intensely colored emerald green quartz, a variety which does not occur naturally. From the circumstances in which this crystal was grown, it has been deduced that the coloration is produced by the presence of a trace of chromium [13]. This diagnosis has still to be confirmed. The coloration in this crystal is very stable, being unaffected by heat treatment up to the a-ß inversion temperature or by prolonged X-irradiation. Preliminary transmission measurements show that the material has an apparent cutoff in the ultraviolet at 2800 Ǻ. It appears likely that this synthetic material is not related to the “greened” amethyst described by Samoylovich [14].
Table 2: Sodium and aluminum concentrations in synthetic quartz grown in Na2CO3 solution on Z-cut seeds in the presence of aluminum.


The recent investigation, still incomplete, has shown that the nature of the cation in the solution from which the crystals are grown can have a considerable effect on the way in which impurities are incorporated in synthetic quartz. An investigation of the type described can be of value to the worker studying color centers in quartz in a number of ways.
a. The process described for the growth of large crystals of synthetic quartz can provide material with total impurity content, and particularly substitutional aluminum content, lower than is found in natural quartz. This is of value to the worker, studying radiation damage in quartz. With regard to the substitutional aluminum content, it must be noted that the concentration in a number of specimens grown under nominally similar conditions will differ slightly and partly as a result of the statistical nature of the process and also as a result of variations in the purity of the nutrient.
b. Controlled amounts of the impurities present in natural quartz can, in certain instances, be introduced. This can be of considerable assist in identifying the nature of those color centers which are impurity-dependent.
c. By the introduction of impurities not found in natural quartz, material with new properties can be grown. For example, if sufficient chromium can be introduced into the green quartz it may be possible to obtain quartz which is paramagnetic.

Wednesday 27 November 2019

Lupine Publishers | Fibonacci Circle in Fashion Design

Lupine Publishers | Journal of Textile and Fashion Designing


Fibonacci circle is a pattern which is created on the base of Fibonacci spiral square tilling and Fibonacci spiral. Fibonacci circle is designed similarly to Fibonacci spiral using the frame of Fibonacci spiral square tilling. The difference between both designs is: The spiral is drawn with quarter-circle arcs inscribed in the squares and Fibonacci circle is constructed with whole circles [1]. The design of Fibonacci circle on the frame of Fibonacci spiral square tilling is presented in Figure 1. The pattern without frame is shown in Figure 2. Similarly to Fibonacci circle the Golden circle can be created on the base of the Golden spiral [2].
Figure 1: Fibonacci circle, designed on the base of Fibonacci spiral square tilling.
Figure 2: Fibonacci circle without the frame of Fibonacci spiral square tilling.
Fibonacci circle can be applied in Fashion design similarly to other Fibonacci geometry creations as symbols of beauty and harmony.

An Example for Application of Fibonacci Circle in Fashion Design

Figure 3 presents a design of a lady's dress with an application of Fibonacci circle. The circles are designed in one size and are arranged in a linear rhythm in vertical direction along the whole length of the dress. The front neckline is formed with a circle arc with diameter equal to the biggest of the circles in the used pattern of Fibonacci circle. Fibonacci circles are designed in two colors as both colors are alternated. Another bi-colors combination for Fibonacci circle is shown in Figure 4. The circles can be designed in four colors like it is presented in Figure 5 where the circles in every of the four directions are colored in particular hue.
Figure 3: A lady's dress with Fibonacci circles.
Figure 4: Fibonacci circle in two colors.
Figure 5: Fibonacci circle in four colors.


The Fibonacci circle can be applied in fashion design in variety of rhythms (linear, on the base of square and triangle sets, spiral one, and etc. according to the types of symmetry and proportions), various color combinations, and in different proportion and directions according to the clothing pieces. The other elements and pieces of the garments can be formed according to Fibonacci circle.

Tuesday 26 November 2019

Lupine Publishers | Selected Methods of Spatial Analysis of Soils of Azerbaijan

Lupine Publishers- Environmental and Soil Science Journal

Spatial analysis in GIS Wednesday is based on complex techniques, the results of which depend on the raw data. One of the fundamentals of spatial analysis techniques based on digital hypsometric model is the development of maps of the angles. She gained widespread use, from morphogenetic and geologicalengineering perspective to the agrarian and territorial planning.

Progress of Research and Discussion of Materials

Program Arc Map provides the ability to quickly prepare this type of cards based on raster model hypsometric territory. To calculate the slope of a surface that is specific to a particular screen, used values of absolute height, raised eight surrounding screens (Figure 1). The calculated values of the two parameters (ɑ and (b)), proportional average slant of slope (respectively on the x and y axis) according to the following formulae:
Figure 1.
ɑ = (h3+2h6+h9-h1-2h4 - (h)7 )/8L (1)

(b)=(h1+2h2+h3-h7-2h8 - (h)9 )/8L
Where is:
(h)1 = the absolute height of the surface of the territory in (i) -OM image according to (Figure 1).
L = raster measurement.
The angle of the slope, plant in the central point is cal
tan ɑ= √a2 + b2 (2).
a) In the menu Spatial Analyst pick Surfase Analysis, then Slopethat will lead to opening the window method.
b) With list boxes Input surface Choose created a digital model of the hypsometric of Azerbaijan.
c) The main unit can be marked graphs slope measurement slope on the resultant map-in variant degrees ( Degree) or as a percentage (option) Percent
d) Graphs Z Factor and Output cell size perform the same role as in the Hillshade. Leave them automatic size.
e) In the graph Output raster point localization and name of the source file, then- OK.
f) After completion of the analysis of the source layer appears in the map image.
g) Change the layer display mode according to the technique described previously.
h) The final effect should be similar to (Figure 2).
i) The following method of broad application that is based on digital hypsometric model is the definition of exposure [1].
Under slope Exposition, understand the direction (azimuth) slope steepness of most to the sides of the horizon.
Figure 2.Indexation Scheme of high-altitude points to calculate slope angles.
This option is very important for those kinds of analysis that takes into account the difference of thermal balance of the northern and southern slopes.
This is the initial value for aspects such as the time of occurrence of snow cover duration of vegetation period etc. The method of calculation is similar to the method Slope . It also used high-altitude data from screens placed in the immediate vicinity of the Central screen, for which the calculation of parameters (a) and (b) (in accordance with identical formulas) [2].
Exposition of slopeis calculated as:
tan ß=a/b (3)
If (b) positively, the largest Add 180°, that allows to take into account the magnitude of the azimuth from 0 to 360°.
a) In menu Spatial Analyst choose a Surface Analysis, then Aspect-method dialog box appears (Figure 3)
Figure 3: Angular slopes map developed in accordance with method S lope based on a digital model of Azerbaijan hypsometric.
b) In box Input surface traditionally make the filename digitally hypsometric model.
c) In box Output cell size leave unattended.
In box Output raster denote localization and name of the source file, click OK to start following their completion, payments to the image will be added effective map. After you change the display card is similar to (Figure 3). Next, consider the way to an integrated spatial analysis based on raster maps. For example, suppose you want to select a specific localization hypothetical potential investments on the territory of Azerbaijan. Investor demands that the investing territory meets certain conditions. First, the angle of the slopes in the territory’s investment should not exceed 10°. Secondly, the investment should be within the absolute height of surface from 100 to 500 mnm. Using GIS and digital hypsometric model of Azerbaijan (with derived layers), the definition of localizations of this investment takes a few minutes. In menu Spatial Analyst toolbar Select position Raster Calculator. A dialog box appears, represented in the left part of the window, in the Layers highlighted all raster layers project. With right sides are mathematical logical operators that can be used for entering formulas. The formulas are based on arithmetic operators, and the results have a numeric expression. For example, if you want to double increase digital hypsometric model, it is possible to formulate a simple expression: [CGM]. where instead of CGM, you must enter the name of the selected raster layer surface model. As a result of this operation received a raster map, where each point in discrete space is assigned a numerical value, which corresponds to doubling the height of the territory. Such arithmetic operations can be applied to other sectors. For example, having a layer of embossed field precipitation, as well as layer with spatial distribution of filtration coefficient, obtained by multiplying the two layers you can obtain the spatial distribution of effective infiltration of precipitation. Often also used the differencing method. In this way, create a differential maps that document the temporarily-spatial variability of the investigated phenomenon. For example, as a result of the seizure of average precipitation from the actual over the past two years, it is possible to define the territory increases and regression of this phenomenon [4-6].
Use this type of expression to identify the territory within Azerbaijan, which satisfies the conditions of investra. First define the territory where the inclination does not exceed slopes 100.
This requires the formulation of the next task
[Slope] < = 10. (4)
Where on the graph Slope you must submit the name of a bitmap layer with angles of inclination of slopes.
Formulation of issues using Windows Raster Calculator is simple enough:
i. In the graph Layers Select the name of the layer with the angles of inclination of slopes. Note that added layer automatically enclosed in quotation marks.
ii. Of the symbols of the operators choose < =. This results in adding this element to the expression.
Citation: RAE Aliyev ZH. Selected Methods of Spatial Analysis of Soils of Azerbaijan. Open Acc J Envi Soi Sci 1(1)- 2018. OAJESS.MS.ID.000103. 18 iii. Using digital signs in a window or on the keyboard, type 10 in the end of the expression.
iv. The formula is ready, you can go to to do so. Evaluate.
Upon completion of the calculations in the working area of the project will add a new layer using the program Calculation . Layer is only with greatness and 0 1.
Screens marked digital 1, satisfy the conditions of maximum slope slopes up to 10 largest° . Now you must select the area that meets the requirements of investra for its absolute height. To do this, construct the following expression (5) [7-10]:
[CGM] > = 100 and [CGM] < = 500 (5)
On site CGM enter the name of a raster layer with digital hypsometric model territory. For formulating expressions use window Raster Calculator .
a) In Windows Raster Calculator Select layer with digital hypsometric model of Azerbaijani territory in the graph Layers.
b) press the key with the operator > =
c) Enter the value 100
d) Push And
e) Again click on the layer name in the CGM graph Layers.
f) Push the button with the < = operator
g) Enter the value 500
h) Check the correctness of the formula and select Evaluate.
The result of the calculations is a raster layer named program Calculation . 2. similar to the previous layer here showing screens marked cifroj1 that identify the territory, where high-rise relevant criteria. now you must connect both layers to define the territory corresponding to two requirements-surface height and tilt. Use the method the Raster Calculator [11-12].
a) press twice on the layer Calculation in the graph Layers.
b) Select the = operator
c) Enter the value 1.
d) Choose the logical operator And
e) twice click on layer Calculation2.
f) Select the = operator
g) Enter the value 1.
h) The final expression must be of the form:
[Calculation] = 1 & [Calculation2] = 1
i) Click on Evaluate. In the working area will be added a new layer with the designated (red) territory, which satisfies the requirements of the investor (Figure 4) [13-15].
Figure 4: Map of exposures of the slopes, developed based on digital hypsometric put Azerbaijan.
The resulting image points to a very extensive array, located in the foothill zone of Azerbaijan. It is clear that in such a large territory does not satisfy any investor to potential localization object. In this regard, you can narrow the boundary parameters of each criterion. For example, the choice of the territory where the inclination does not exceed 1 degree. In the analysis process can also take into account additional criteria, such as location, investment plot at a distance of not less than 500 m from the nearest coastline and 1000 m from the urban areas (Figure 5). The possibilities are endless and depend solely on the needs of the user of GIS and spatial information availability [15-18].
Figure 5: Result of the spatial analysis to define the territory of Azerbaijan, the relevant requirements of the investor.

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Monday 25 November 2019

Lupine Publishers | The Role of Technology Transfer in Supporting Climate Change Adaptation the Avenue to Disaster Risk Reduction in the Arid and Semiarid Zones


No doubt that climatic development and related changes are not new, bur a worldwide phenomenon that never respected national boundaries. Their severe consequences and negative impacts have touched most world countries; melting glaciers, deadly typhoons, catastrophic hurricanes, brutal tornadoes, torrential rains, harsh drought, continuous heat waves heavier precipitation, frost, fluctuation of annual average temperatures, changing duration, shifting seasons and disastrous floods are just a few of the many forms of climate change consequences. There is no single world country that was not seriously devastated by economic, health, social and or environmental complications. All these shattering consequences have urged most countries around the globe to find mitigation measures, adaptation techniques and methods and put this goal as a top priority of international conferences and symposiums at the local, regional and international levels. The notion “Act locally and think globally” has become the main slogan for a collective action to ease the consequences of the climate change. Needless to say, that huge efforts in awareness raising, education, training, technology transfer and information use can make a big difference, which have immense potentials to mitigate the implications of climate change. It is in fact the only hope to face the negative impacts of climate change.


Climate change, as mentioned earlier, is an intricate global environmental dilemma, which is unpredictable, controversial and a never-ending predicament. It affects every single person on earth and creature living on our planet. The fact that cannot be denied is that the intricacy of the climate change dilemma lies in the absent of appropriate understanding and/or justification of the reasons behind its complications and developments. Hence, its worldwide excessive impact, unpredictability, accelerating trends, tremendous extreme influence, continuity and increasing complexity make the situation even worse.

For decades, climate change implications have been affecting not only agriculture, but also the economy, tourism, health, as well as social and environmental aspects. Definitely, climate change implications and their accelerating pace, combined with increased global population and income growth will affect the overall food situation [1]. Among the negative influence of climate change on agriculture is the low yield and the bad quality of agricultural products, which is obvious on all crops. Nobody doubt the fact that the agricultural sector is the most affected by climate change implications among all other sectors. Indeed, the sector is facing enormous challenges, where extreme weather conditions and events threaten the existence of humanity. The existence of new insects, diseases and weeds, combined with shifting seasons and shortening the growing seasons are among the most serious upshots that we are witnessing daily. Within this context, it is obvious that technology transfer is one of the best solutions to the problem, where a growing recognition of its potential role as a major response is increasing. With this fact agrees [2], where indicated that mitigating climate change requires information, education, and technology transfer. It is urgently needed by resource scarce smallholders, who are the most affected by climate change, yet, they contribute very little to the problem.
It is recognized worldwide that adaptation and mitigation are the main two major areas needed by farmers to mitigate the impact. For sure, diminishing the global climate change impacts necessitate vast scientific knowledge, massive financial resources, enormous physical capacities, huge logistical infrastructure, as well as big technical and human resources. Today, more than ever before, immense efforts and substantial awareness and attitude change are needed urgently not only for Developing Countries but Developed Countries as well. Hence, serious collective efforts are needed by policy and decision makers, scientists of all fields, academia, farm owners and farmers as well as all ordinary citizens. Although huge efforts were made by scientists, but many still believe that there is no quick and instant solution to the problem and no universal remedy or a silver bullet that can stop, freeze, limit or at least decrease the climate change impacts. What can ease the problem is simply enforcing rules and regulations, policies and recommendations parallel with reliance on technology transfer. Definitely, determination and dedication are also of paramount importance when financial and technical resources are available. Certainly, reliance on generous regional and international support and technical assistance are of great importance.

Worldwide Shocking Information

According to the World Bank [3], Asia is the most vulnerable continent on earth. The report indicated that in 2009, over 60% of Asian countries were affected by property damage from severe natural disasters. The report also pointed out that since 1997, over 82% of all lives lost in disasters were in Asian countries. These countries sustained the heaviest mortality rate from catastrophic events related to climate change. In Asia, also six out of ten of the most vulnerable cities in terms of exposed population. No doubt that the magnitude of the problem, specifically in Asian countries, is immeasurable. For an example, if no measures are considered in Bangladesh, the expected damage from a single severe cyclone increase fivefold to reach $9 billion by 2050. The same applies for Vietnam’s Mekong River Delta, where the sea level will rise 30 cm by 2050. For an example, a reduction of rice production by 13 percent will occur when an increased deluge and salinity happen, when over 300 thousand ha will be out of business. China, Vietnam, Laos, The Philippines, Bangladesh, and many other countries are no exception. About 130 million people are living along the coast in low lying islands in China and facing unpredictable destiny due to the enormous threat of cyclones and typhoons. 40 million in Vietnam are expected to face the same danger. Generally speaking, the poorest households are the most affected by the climate change disasters [3]. According to the same source, 12 billion dollars were the cost of the damaged lands, cities, river banks, etc. in the last three decades alone, in the Middle East, and specifically in the Arab world, temperatures are projected to rise 3-4 degrees Celsius by the end on this century. The warmest year since 1800’s was 2010-11, when heat wave records began [4] Indicated that heat waves with maximum temperatures are very likely to become more frequent. Drier and hotter conditions will cause fires to increase in scrub and forest in Maghreb and eastern Mediterranean areas 19 countries in the Middle east, including five Arab countries, set a new high record. for an example, the temperature reached 53.5 degrees in Kuwait, but expected to increase to 75 percent by 2050. This shows that three out of four people might be affected in a way or another in the Arab world [5] other forms of climate change will include, but not limited to, an increase in severe weather events, such as droughts and floods and greater seasonal temperature variability.

The report, which was produced in partnership with the League of Arab States (LAS), warns that climate change implications pose a big threat and a big challenge to the development goals of the millennium. Jordan, for an example, the second poor country in the world in terms of water resources will face food insecurity and water insecurity due to sharp rainfall decrease with temperature increase compounded with a growing population. According to Dorte Verner, the Climate Change Coordinator for the Middle East and North Africa at the World Bank, who gave an alarming signal to the situation that the whole region will face an increased demands for fresh water by 16-50% by 2050 and a 10% decrease in rainfalls and the indicated that between 1980 and 2008 over 37 million Arab people were affected and more than 20 billion dollars were lost due to natural disasters [4]. Overt 55 million people are affected annually by climate related disasters and the estimated damage was $789 billion dollars. In Asia, about the same number of people are affected annually by floods (57 million people), where around 86% of the reported damages are climate‐related disasters. At the global level, 142 million people are affected annually by natural disasters, of which 139 million people were affected by climate related disasters. It is obvious from the facts mentioned above that Asia and the Pacific, are the most affected by climate related disasters. 70% of these countries are vulnerable to climate change and disasters according to the UNU. Countries such as Vanuatu, Tonga, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Bangladesh, Timor-Leste, and Cambodia are the most vulnerable countries in Asia and the Pacific. The fact that cannot be denied is that agriculture, fisheries and forestry are the main sectors affected by climate related disasters, where 60% of the people depend largely on these sectors for find living. The real cost of the damage has sky-rocketing numbers. Between 600 billion to 1.5 trillion USD annually are needed to help these countries. By 2025, The bank estimated that floods in these countries will be threatening between 300 and 410 million people< In some Pacific Islands, it is even much higher, 245-341 million people.

The Scary Status

According to a report published by Karas J [6], it was pointed out that the Mediterranean basin is not immune to the climate change implications. Most North African and Eastern Mediterranean countries are the most to suffer from serious impacts of the climate change combined with the desertification problems. At the same time, the annual precipitation is projected to decline by 10-40%. Temperatures could rise by over 4°C by the beginning of the next century. On the other hand, the report also indicated that the Mediterranean Sea levels could rise by 1 m by 2100 due to melting glaciers and oceans’ expansion. As a result, rivers would become saltier. Egypt, Italy and Greece could have the worst consequences, specifically the Nile Delta, Venice and Thessaloniki respectively, Sand storms and reduction in vegetation cover in northern Sahara and Peri desert region will be increasing soil erosion, hence most Arab countries will have to deal with not traditional environmental threats, but severe, complicated, continuous and spreading complications. Water scarcity will be so severe to the extent that countries will fight each other over water. Some other problems, such as biodiversity loss, desertification, pollution of marine and coastal areas, air pollution and many others will be very common.

The Persian Gulf region is no exception. All six countries of the council (GCC); Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman and Qatar are subject to suffer significant ramifications from global warming. Bahrain and Qatar, where most population live less than 5 meters above sea level are especially susceptible to inland flooding due to the small land mass that is in danger of being inundated as sea levels rise, Saudi Arabia, Oman and the UAE are also rated “highly” vulnerable. Other countries of the Middle East like Yemen, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya and Tunisia are ranked among “extremely” vulnerable countries and score “high” on the CCI index [7].

Water Crisis, Rising Temperatures, etc.

Most of the Arid and Semiarid Zones are suffering from a chronic and even disastrous water problem. In Jordan, for an example, the average per capita use is lower than any other country in the world. It reaches 145 cubic meters per capita per year, a very low number by all standards, if we take into consideration that the United Nations classified countries with less than 500 cubic meters per person per year as having an “absolute scarcity” of water [8]. Karas J [6] regarding the increase of water shortages and decline in water quality, pointed out that the first climate change impacts will be felt first in the Mediterranean water resource system, where reductions in water availability would hit southern Mediterranean countries the hardest. Countries like Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Syria, Malta and the Lebanon will be the most affected by the shortages and some water supplies could become unusable due to salt penetration into rivers and coastal aquifers as sea level rises combined with water pollution which become more concentrated with reductions in river flow, hence causing major health hazard in the region. Karas J [6] also stated that across the Mediterranean region, yields of cereals and other crops could decrease substantially due to the increased frequency of drought, land losses through desertification, increased competition for water and prevalence of pests and diseases. On the other hand, by 2050 or earlier, North Africa and the Near East could witness the disappearance of most of the steppe rangeland and its transformation to desert. Food security could be also threatened by the sharp fall in production, world prices for many commodities such as maize, wheat, soybean and poultry could rise significantly as a result of global climate changes. Livestock production would suffer due to deterioration in the quality of rangeland. The magnitude is so immense in most countries to the extent that Egypt, for example, might lose agricultural production over an area extending 20 km inland. In Tunisia, rising temperatures could lead to the disappearance of nationally important fisheries, the loss of all food plants and breeding waterfowl. The reductions in food and fiber will cause malnutrition and hunger for millions of people. Water shortages as well as damaged infrastructures would increase the risk of cholera, malaria and dysentery, while the combination of heat and pollution would increase the risk of respiratory illnesses, extent of infectious diseases, dengue fever, while extreme weather events could increase death and injury rates. Several valuable ecosystems could be lost, wetland area will face the threat of drying out. Other countries are not immune, where a 3 to 4°C rise in temperatures will cause up to 85% of wetland sites in southern Europe to disappear.

Not only Mediterranean countries loose substantially in economic terms, the human and economic costs of desertification increase would be tremendous. The annual costs of desertification for Tunisia and Spain alone are $100 and $200 million respectively. The magnitude of the climate change from the economic point of view is so immense to the extent that another World Bank study predicted that $75-100 billion a year, is the amount needed to adapt to an approximately 2°C warmer world by 2050. Definitely, Asian and Pacific countries will bear most of the cost. No doubt that those poorer developing countries are affected excessively, and more vulnerable than other countries to climate change implications, and they are greatly devastated from the impacts of natural disasters. This is due to a number of reasons. Probably their reliance on climate sensitive sectors, particularly agriculture, their poor infrastructure, geographic exposure to disasters, low incomes and most importantly, their inability to stand firmly against disasters because of lack of expertise, are the most serious factors.
Another frightening number was reported by IFRC and CRED [9]. It indicated that, between 1990 -1999, around 200 climate related disasters strike per year. Ten years later, around 350 climate related disasters on average per year happened. This is an increase of about 75 percent from previous decade. During these years, and according to the Asian Development Bank [10] the climate related disasters affected more than 200 million people in Asian and the Pacific countries, which compose about 90 percent of world population affected by disasters. Within two years, and specifically during 2010-2011, around 42 million people were displaced from extreme weather events. According to Nelson G et al. [1], agriculture is the most vulnerable sector to climate change. According to the same source, in 2005, over 50 percent of the economically active population in developing countries, which is close to 2.5 billion people, relied on agriculture as the main source for their livelihoods. Today, this number has increased dramatically, where three out of four people of the world’s poor live in rural areas. The magnitude is so immense to the extent that at least $7 billion in additional funds annually are needed to finance investments in research, rural infrastructure and irrigation, to offset the negative effects of climate change on human wellbeing. More bad news of the climate change implications. Madhava S and Durwood Z [11], for an example, believe that Developing Countries will need about $200 billion annually by 2030 to bring about a 25 percent reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions. No doubts that the lives of the poorest and most venerable people are the most to be affected by the climate change implications.

Severe Consequences

Since climate change is a worldwide phenomenon, it is believed that most world countries will suffer in a way or another. At the global level, the magnitude of the effect is various and immense to the extent that an increase of just 2°C in the average temperature will reduce world GDP by about 1 % as Stern [12] predicted. This is a huge impact if we take into considerations the trillions of dollars around the world that are circulating every year. Another prediction of how immense the climate change is [13] stated, agreed and supported the notion that the impact of the climate change is substantial. For an example, India and Africa will face reductions of agricultural output by 30 percent or more. As Nelson G et al. [1] pointed out, agriculture, is extremely vulnerable to climate change [1]. They stated that in 2005, over half of the population in Developing Countries, which was estimated at 2.5 billion, relied on agriculture for their livelihoods. Nowadays, according to the World Bank [14], around 75 percent of world’s poor live in rural areas and they are the most affected. According to a Food Policy Report, agriculture and human wellbeing will be severely affected by one or more of the following climate change implications; yield reduction, price increase, decline of meat consumption, imbalance of supply and demand, declining calorie availability, higher feed prices for livestock, increase malnutrition and lower investments. As a result, increase in death rates, unemployment will soar, and social instability will be in jeopardy. The agricultural sector in particular will be subject to some or all of the following implications due to the climate change; appearance of new diseases, insects or weeds not known before in the area, shortening growing seasons, not completely ripen veggies or fruits with less vitamins, minerals or other crucial ingredients.

Developing countries, as most researchers and analysts predict, are the most to be affected, and specifically, South Asia, which will be particularly hard hit by climate change implications. The fact that cannot be denied is that the yield for the most important crops will decline sharply due to the shifting seasons, rainfall variations, shortening of seasons, higher temperatures, frequent frost and weed and pest proliferation. In light of all these complex developments that the world is facing, especially, Developing Countries, scientists have no doubts that Developing Countries are more vulnerable to climate change, and they will have less suitable climates for agricultural practices. Most of these countries depend largely on agriculture, they lack proper and adequate financial resources, have weak infrastructure to respond properly to increased variability and most importantly, they are facing all the implications of the climate change alone. Definitely, rainfed areas as well as irrigated regions will have varying effects on yields, specifically irrigated crops in South Asia, which will experience large declines. It is well known that when yields of the most important agricultural crops (rice, wheat soybeans, maize, etc.) are affected, prices increase. As a result, higher feed prices will result in higher meat prices, hence causing the reduction of the growth in meat consumption. Among the consequences that the sector is facing is the higher temperatures, which eventually reduce yields of most crops while encouraging pest and weed proliferation. The fact that the changes in precipitation patterns, despite few gains in some crops in some regions of the world, will show an increase of the likelihood of short run crop failures and long-run production will decline. Most researchers, analysts and environmentalists believe that the overall impact of climate change on agriculture is expected to be negative, and as a result, global food security is threatened.
The overall impact of climate change is unpredictable; however, malnutrition will be a case that most developing countries will have to face. According to Nelson G et al. [1] the 2050 will witness lower calorie availability than in the no climate change scenario. The decline will be even lower to 2000 levels throughout the developing world. By the same year, the decline in calorie availability will increase child malnutrition by at least 20 percent comparing to a world with no climate change impact. Based on the mentioned facts, the climate change will eliminate a great deal of the improvement in child malnourishment levels that would occur with no climate change. Thus, huge amounts of financial resources are needed to cope with the various negative impact of the climate change. For an example, the large agricultural productivity investments of about USD 7.1-7.3 billion are urgently needed more than ever before to raise calorie consumption enough to offset the negative impacts of climate change on the health and well-being of children [1].

The Solution Technology Transfer Can Make the Difference

Certainly, technology transfer will never be able to solve the whole problem of the climate change implications, but definitely it can make a big difference. There are a number of recommendations that were suggested by the Food Policy Report, presented by IFRPI [1] which give a high concern for a number of measures to combat the negative impact of the climate change. Technology transfer was among the main parts of the recommendations. The group of scientists and scholars gave technology transfer a crucial role in the adaptation process. They include reviving national research and extension programs in each country. The recommendations call for heavy investments in laboratory scientists and infrastructure as well as partnerships with other national and international centers. The important aspect in the recommendations urge for a strong collaboration with local farmers, traders, input suppliers, consumer groups and other stakeholders as an essential and effective measures for the development and dissemination of appropriate, cost-effective techniques that will help strengthen communication among all involved groups (scientists, extension agents, farmers, etc. to meet the challenges of climate change.

Another vital recommendation of the report calls for agricultural adaptation as a key agenda point in international climate meetings, conferences and symposiums. This should allow governments and other organizations to advance proposals for practical actions on adaptation in agriculture. The report also advocates for the recognition of enhanced food security as a major partner of climate change adaptation. Needless to say, that climate change will pose huge challenges to food security efforts and any activity in the direction of supporting agricultural adaptation will definitely enhance food security. The increased food security measures will assist the rural poor with the needed resources that will help them adapt to climate change. Supporting communitybased adaptation strategies are also of great importance. The need is urgent for national and international development agencies to ensure that all financial, technical as well as capacity-building measures target local communities. Community participation in the national adaptation planning processes is a must. Community-based adaptation strategies can make all the difference in assisting rural communities strengthen their capacities to cope with disasters. Such groups are encouraged to diversify their livelihoods, improve land-management skills, coordinate with all involved partners and fully adapt national policies and strategies.

Another crucial factor that must be considered is the increase of funding for adaptation programs. It is estimated, according to the same report, that at least seven billion dollars are needed per year. Another seven billion dollars per year are also required to finance rural infrastructure, research and irrigation systems to offset the negative implications of climate change on human wellbeing. Extension programs can play a strategic role in information sharing through the transfer of new technologies and techniques, capacity building, teaching improved management systems; facilitate cooperation and interaction and encouraging the establishment of farmers’ networks. Specific services to mitigate climate change should include, but not limited to, disseminating local cultivars of drought-resistant crop varieties, improve global data collection, dissemination, and their analysis. Any global efforts to collect and disseminate data among all involved parties must be strengthened. The fact that cannot be denied is that successful development and the effective diffusion of the latest technologies in agriculture will shape the way farmers mitigate and adapt to climate change. Certainly, regular and continuous observations of unusual events are of paramount importance. They must be recorded, analyzed, disseminated and considered. If technology transfer is to be successful, then it must meet local needs and priorities. Willingness of the people to understand the new developments, act, make the desired change needed and create a difference are important to consider. Without doubt, when priorities are set, economic and physical capabilities are convened, and social and psychological conditions are regarded, then the impact of technology transfer can be doubled.
In reality, and in order to speed TT, the six factors (categories); economic social, environmental, political, perception and attitudes, and regulatory factors are all of immense importance. None of the above factors are less or more important than the others and neither can be ignored nor eliminated. Funds are needed to support education, Research and Development (R&D), extension and purchase of technologies. On the other hand, social factors are prerequisite for a successful technology transfer process. This can speed, slow and even stop the process the more a nation is open to the world, the faster the technology transfer can be disseminated, especially if they don’t stand against the culture, norms and traditions. Political aspects are seen and noticed in faster TT. Completely unwanted results might be seen if they are ignored [15]. Meeting the needs and priorities of the local people must have high level of acceptance, active participation as well as strong willingness to adopt, otherwise all the efforts are in jeopardy.

Concluding remarks

a. Huge financial support, social participation and interaction, political interference, environmental awareness, strong involvement by policy responses as well as a new set of policy instruments for decision making are needed more than ever before. All these and many others are needed to improve our disaster risk reduction capacity
b. Effective partnership between research centers and technology seekers is a must. The three pillars; farmers, extension agents and researchers must closely work to test and promote new crop varieties, as well as to teach management measures [2].
c. A major strategic element in supporting agriculture’s role is information. The three pillars of mitigation are information, education, and technology transfer.
d. Agricultural extension in its forms; public and private, as well as advisory services can play a significant role in providing farmers with the needed information, education and technologies, on how to cope with climate change through adaptation and mitigation measures.
e. Extension systems can help farmers deal with climate change through adaptation and contingency measures that deal with what cannot be prevented.
f. Extension systems can assist farmers and preparing them for greater climate variability and uncertainty, especially in providing advice on how to deal with new insects, weeds and diseases, dealing with droughts and avoiding floods.
g. Extension staff can help farmers with knowledge, proper practices and management systems that are resilient to climate change implications such as no till (Zero Tillage), sequential cropping, intercropping, etc.

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