Friday, 22 November 2019

Lupine Publishers | The Benefits of Sports Medicine

Lupine Publishers | Journal of Orthopaedics


Physiotherapy and Sports Medicine in a new concept focused not only on rehabilitation or treatment of discomfort or pathologies, but to provide all our experience so that all those who wish to start enjoying sports with health. And there is no doubt that thanks to Sports Medicine we are able to discover our own limits while we can carry out an adequate exercise, which in turn allows us to prevent or improve diseases such as diabetes, hypertension or obesity, among others. Thanks to the different personalized programs of physical exercise, which helps us improve memory, mental function, speed and personal autonomy. Besides, of course, help us improve our own body image, our health in general and to enjoy a better feeling of well-being.

Main benefits of Sports Medicine

a) Benefits on the metabolism
b) Increase the consumption of fats.
c) Increases oxygen utilization capacity.
d) Reduces cardiac work
e) Improves glucose tolerance.
f) It generates a loss of weight.
g) Strengthens the structure of bones.
h) It favors the treatment of diabetes.
i) Collaborate in the maintenance of a full sexual life.
j) Benefits on the heart.
k) Increases circulation in the muscles.
l) It reduces the formation of clots within the arteries.
m) Reduces blood pressure.
n) Benefits on the person from a psychological point of view.
o) Increase self-esteem.
p) It reduces stress.
q) Decreases anxiety, anguish and depression.
Sports medicine is the specialty of orthopedics that is responsible for the medical care of athletes, both amateurs and high performance professional athletes. Orthopedists dedicated to this specialty should be familiar with the diagnosis and treatment of the different injuries that an athlete may present, in addition to knowing and attending to situations related to nutrition, the prevention of injuries and the allocation of training programs directed for each athlete. It is important that each evaluation is given an approach according to the age of the athlete, since each individual has different physiological characteristics and at each stage of their life they change and become more specific, especially in older adults and children, who have different abilities and performance than those of a young adult. Each sport has a different pattern of injuries, so the sports doctor must evaluate the patient and base a large part of their evaluation, differential diagnosis and treatment plan on the type of physical activity the patient performs.
It is fundamental in the treatment of an athlete, especially high performance, that there is close communication between the orthopedist and the physical therapist so that personalized work and rehabilitation plans are established in a coordinated manner to return the athlete to their activities safely, without risking a relapse and that it recovers its level and performance as soon as possible. It is necessary to take into account that each person has different physical conditions and that each sport or physical activity has different physical and energetic demands that increase with the passage of time in the same measure in which the athlete improves his performance. This is why sports medicine is necessary; as a specialized doctor can advise the athlete regarding their nutrition, basal conditioning condition, health, training programs, recovery periods and, above all, recommend measures for the prevention of injuries. Although it cannot be ignored that the risk of injury is inherent in the practice of a sport and sometimes injuries are inevitable. Good nutrition is a fundamental element for the success of any athlete, because it provides the energy required to train and compete, decreases recovery time, increases strength and development of muscle mass, preserves bone structure strong enough to withstand the wear and tear that exercise implies and increase the speed of recovery from illnesses and injuries.
It is important that an athlete does not skip meals that he stays hydrated before, during and after physical activity and that he consumes high quality proteins. The athlete must avoid periods of prolonged fasting to avoid the depletion of amino acids and maintain their proper hormonal levels and must consume fruits and vegetables rich in minerals to have an adequate adaptation to the stress generated by exercise. The importance of sports medicine today is due to the fact that nowadays it is necessary, even in certain sports regulations, to carry out a medical evaluation prior to the participation of an athlete in any sporting event, this with the purpose of preventing risks for the general health of the athlete. It is important that during the evaluation it is determined if there are medical conditions that could put at risk the integrity of the individual. Therefore, a cardiovascular evaluation is performed on all athletes, since with the exercise the cardiac, pulmonary and vascular demands increase. It is also important to determine the weight of the individual, identify signs of metabolic problems, perform a musculoskeletal evaluation of the entire spine and appendicle skeleton to be able to give an adequate recommendation about the activity and its risks for the athlete, as well identify possible injuries that could be exacerbated by increased physical demands.
Sports medicine plays a very important role here, because on many occasions, due to the demands of the sport business, athletes take their bodies to the limit with the idea of accelerating their recovery process and the only thing they achieve is to worsen or aggravate their injury, it is therefore important that the orthopedist establish an appropriate treatment and make the athlete understand that there is a minimum recovery time that cannot be accelerated, otherwise there is a risk of suffering a relapse or injury worse than the first one. Children and older adults should also exercise regularly and make it a part of their lives, even if it is not done professionally, but it must be taken into account that they have different capacities and their body is in stages of development different from those of an adult. It is important that you do not overdo it or try to do activities in which your body can be affected.

History of Sports Medicine

This branch of medicine is not a mere subspecialty of orthopaedics and traumatology, its area is so wide that the specialists who practice it must have experience in a wide variety of ailments and areas of the body that are exposed to suffer an ailment, suffering or illness when doing sports. Sports doctors not only cater to professional or high performance athletes, they also take care of the health problems and the diagnosis of injuries and sufferings of amateur athletes or those people who perform physical and sports activities constantly, so they must possessing knowledge not only of traumatology and orthopaedics, but also of nutrition, psychology and sociology, can offer athletes much more complete care than the mere treatment of their injuries, as well as determining when to channel them with another specialist. But sports medicine, as well as sports related injuries, is not a modern and exclusive practice of the 20th century. Its practice extends as far back into the history of mankind as sport itself. The first records of this practice date back to the time of ancient Greece, where the Olympics originated; in these sporting events injuries were even more common than at present.


As we can see the practice of physical activity is healthy for our body. But never forget the supervision of a sports doctor. Sometimes the consequences can overshadow this bonomia.

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Thursday, 21 November 2019

Lupine Publishers | Utilization of Forecasting Global Trends in Fashion and its Applications

Lupine Publishers | Journal of Textile and Fashion Designing


Considering the importance of technology and the human health in the advanced levels and several emergency medical and clinical issues associated with it, the key attention is given towards biomedical research. Thus, asserting the requirement of a common evoked and enriched information sharing platform for the craving readers. And there are sectors where the use of models is very important; in fact they can help in the comprehension of the surroundings and in the discovery of the natural laws in different sciences: textiles Design, Chemistry of textiles, Biology, Genetics of fibers, Physics. Among sectors where this forecasting knowledge modeling can be very interesting, we find the field of fashion, in particular the sphere of trends' valuation.
In this field, stylists and marketing experts study past trends and, according to their experience, formulate a forecasting on trends that will lead the next years’ collection. This study could prove to be very difficult and complicated both for experienced stylists and for small and medium companies that can only count on limited resources and experiences, throw digital publication covering art, design and fashion in cities around the world. Photographed and written through the eyes of two travelers with a passion for storytelling, features creative people, spaces and moments that reflect each destination's distinctive aesthetic.
With a focus on striking editorials, in-depth features and behind the scenes coverage, each issue gives readers an inside peek into the world of wanderlust and artistic exploration. We describe our research activity aimed at investigating if artificial intelligence may be useful to support the stylist in the creative process which starts with the analysis of past fashion trends and ends with the forecasting of the new ones. In particular, we focused our attention on the creation of color proposals made by color stylists for the spun-yarn industries working in the fashion market. Strategic of forecasting for specification of woven fabric design for textiles and apparel; as a steps after a preface about the subject of textiles and apparel its purpose, which is summarized in achieving design of forecasting the specification of textiles and apparel.
Knowledge-based systems are able to solve problems in a limited domain but with performances similar to the ones of a human expert of the same domain. Were defines the theoretical and analytical studies the effective Factor of (utilization) which affect on the fashion and include 16 element with Explaining it in details. These elements are 16 with the international fashion Trends. And how to search on it for the trends and it sources the time for Trends. So, the subject chooses of the fashion trends in suitable time in the international market of the analytical studies for woven design as the main element of fashion dresses and the meaning of the design and it sort. The effect aesthetic resulting of woven design for dresses: texture, draping, transparency, in addition to the style of using (reliability standard) dresses and it relation with woven design on which the utilizes of the fabric properties.
And the analytical studies for forecasting and fashion industry. So, defined some general conception problems and fashion Conception industry. And, explain that is the center of art except fashion, in Addition the concepts of prediction and it sorts which is conceded are of the Most element in fashion industry and the concept of color prediction and the Element of fashion prediction last year of the 20th century and the first decode of 21th century (analytical study).
Dissection support system for fashion and show the benefits of using Database, kind, and its historical development, design stages, techniques, and how to do it and its languages. For this reason, a forecasting system seems suitable to support stylists and industry users in the creation of color proposal based on the analysis of past trends. One problem of such systems is forecasting acquisition because very often it cannot be made manually, e.g. nowadays data mining techniques are widely used from a practical point of view to take advantage of the knowledge contained in databases. And to the effective factor which on the fashion in factors form with style and Tools for assembling data. And know many scientism expression and defied the relatively weight for the effective factors on the fashion.
Dresses and defied the style of questionnaire and statistical. Appearance the produce, applied, and practical experiments of fabrics which According with fashion direction and its reliability stander (style) with review The yarn specification of loom, which it used and analytical to analyze the effective factor (motion international) fashion. With found (standard deviation) forte and his affect Phenomenon. Flowing events, with the effective and positive appearance the producers of design database and the available tools to the applied programming. In spite of all these applications, as we know, computational creativity has never been applied to fashion and in particular to the forecasting of trends for color selection. For this reason we consider the work described in this paper as a first step on the development a real creative system for fashion. As General results and discussion to defines and classifies the effective factors of the fashion Textiles and, tables from database including creative suggestion the relation, so the subject are expression, for produce reports from the external level that arranged for forecasting fashion to definition all relations in fashion Seasonal succession the analytical .
With the analytical detail for new design of database for textile & apparel design. So include the engineering structure and the creative design witch including three levels the internal level, external level, the conceptual level so, transfer that to relation form of tables window for produce reports from the external level and defines and classifies the factor of forming consist of the fashion and, including form and material, so the subject are expression. The Fashion trends, and the means with expression for this trends so after that the guaranteed beyond the including off activity human minds so that representation the formal of the general popular susceptibility and how it boring. So menstruation it after that tackled creative suggestion arranged for Forecasting fashion to definition all relations in fashion dresses and Seasonal succession the analytical studies for color since 20th and 21th till year 2030. And available to prediction by colors for the next year Form the extension natural extension for the graph line and the amount of color cycle according with phenomena flowing events with the effective Factor on the fashion. Throw Presentation of the analytical to the fashion trends which representation seven trends prediction for art trends for color, Fabrics colors models.
    a) The First trend (Technology)
    b) The Second trend (Nostalgia to the past)
    c) The Third trend (Fineness Tidiness)
    d) The Fourth trend (Back to the Neture)
    e) The Fifth trend (Militarily Scinses)
And the scope of color has widened and the color grades within one main color becomes literally thousands due to that, names of colors differed and the color become recognizable by a code or number, but there are multiplicity in Color producing companies and duality in their names and numbering them Regularly. So, there should be a Standardized International system of textile industries, E.g. numbering strings with assumed name. To facilitate exchanging in the International Joint market by means of "internet” and the Like (similar) communications through a color number instead of the form and Shape of color which differs from one's eye to another to determine. This system began working through a database and the name of the color its Number and the color system used for it was recorded.

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Wednesday, 20 November 2019

Lupine Publishers | Is the salvation of life on the planet?

Lupine Publishers- Environmental and Soil Science Journal

Before the advent of modern industry, nature had tangible additions in the composition of atmospheric water vapor natural evaporation from transpiration of plant and natural emissions, in particular, from the respiration of creatures, animal worlds. Every living being, every plant in its secretions, at the molecular level, in its secretions creates information about itself. It is known that in the exhalation of a living being in the moisture of breathing, in any secretions, information is contained. It is proved by the fact that animals determine their victims and the opposite sex by smells. Plants allocate their personal phytoncides. Phytoncides are all volatile substances released by plants, including those that are practically impossible to collect in appreciable amounts. These phytoncides are also called “native antimicrobial substances of plants We all enjoy the smells of flowers, coniferous forests, shrubs.
Medicine has such achievements that it is possible to diagnose his illnesses according to the exhalation of a person. https://www. The diagnosis of exhalation is the latest achievements of medicine, a revolution in oncology. Inspectors of road safety services for smell movement and appliances determine the state of alcohol status of the driver of the vehicle.All these smells and volatile substances are formed inside the living organism as a result of the most complicated chemical transformations. We also know that water has a different molecular structure and carries information. Maybe this information is preserved in evaporation? For example, in the works of the famous Japanese scientist Emoto Mazaru, it is clearly defined how ice crystals change depending on sound and even mental effects on water. Proceeding from this, it can be concluded that evaporation from organic matter also has certain properties and, accumulating in the atmosphere, creates certain conditions. It is these conditions that form the volumes of subsequent precipitation, the location of their distribution, and the graphs of precipitation.
A man with his civilization influences the path of organic transformations, or rather destroys a whole link in the everlasting path of water food chains. This is asphalt, arable land, surface water bodies, landfills. According to the area of the entire land area of the planet, such territories became 63 percent for 2015, which are expanding with the development of technologies with increasing acceleration. Even greater evaporation produces man from production and communal industries. Water coming from the water pipe evaporates in millions of evaporators, heaters, sinks, dryers from each rag, from each washed cup without changing the structure in the organics. These are evaporation unknown to the nature, let’s call them artificial.Nothing in nature is done just like that. Nothing never disappears anywhere and does not appear anywhere. What is the further path of artificial fumes? What is their structure, what is their volume and what is the speed of such evaporation. We feel it ourselves. They rise in the sky in huge volumes, they permanently cover the sun. They fall out incredible precipitation in some places, and do not carry drops into others. The mechanism of rational circulation has disappeared. This is no longer a cycle of water in nature, but a cycle of artificial fumes. Nature is powerless to control such volumes and such velocities.
It follows that organic evaporation, uniting in the clouds, synthesizes a certain substance, some special property that somehow forms the temperature, volume, shape, quality of the surface atmosphere. Interacting with the biota for millions of years, a certain cycle of substances between the atmosphere and the soil has stabilized. The quality, the amount of precipitation, the places of their condensation, movement in geographic space and loss all this was polished in a single process. This explains the creation and distribution of all natural areas from deserts to the tropics.From here we get droughts in some areas, floods in others. Destroyed, created by millions of years, the mechanism of atmospheric phenomena. In effect, the destruction of just one link in the circuit of water on the planet led to the creation of an entirely new atmospheric mechanism - the circulation of artificial fumes, a new source of natural disasters, to climate change.

Is There a Possibility of Salvation?

The Paris Agreements of 2015, “green technologies”, alternative energy sources - this is an intuitive direction created by mankind to conserve nature. Right direction. But only these are microscopic steps. Moreover, these steps lead to a catastrophe, diverting the efforts of mankind to preserve life.
The only true direction to preserving life on the planet is the movement to reduce artificial and return natural vapors. If we want to preserve life on the planet, we must begin to restore the nature of the cycle of water selected from it to nature.
A new concept for stopping climate change should be developed. The main elements of this are
a) Complete and unconditional stopping of projects and construction of all types of works with the partitioning of rivers, the laying of new channels
b) Global water saving in everyday life and production of all products by every person, every production of all countries and continents
c) Maximum possible rapid relocation of all types of production , the infrastructure of cities and the very housing under the ground.

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Tuesday, 19 November 2019

Lupine Publishers | Evaluation of Host Associated Genetic Markers for Rapid PCR Based Identification of Fecal Contamination Sources in Water

Lupine Publishers- Environmental and Soil Science Journal


The water quality of many waterways in the state of Alabama, and in the nation as a whole, is deteriorating due to point and nonpoint source pollution from human and animal waste. Accurate identification of contamination sources is essential if we are to develop cost-effective pollution control strategies. The direct detection of host specific genetic markers by Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR) has been widely used in identifying sources of fecal contamination in environmental waters. In this study, we conducted experiments to validate genetic markers associated with deer/elk, Canada goose, dog, and cattle for Microbial Source Tracking (MST) in Alabama. End point PCR was performed on 10 raw sewage samples and 133 fecal samples from nine animal species. Our results showed that CowM3, GFD (goose), and deer/elk associated markers have acceptable specificity and sensitivity, making them suitable for MST studies. However, the dog marker and one of the cattle markers (CowM2) exhibited cross reactions with other fecal samples. The performance of these host associated markers in environmental water was evaluated using both end point and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Human, goose, and dog markers were detected in several water samples by end point PCR; the human marker and CowM2 marker were also detected by qPCR. Samples collected after a significant rainfall event showed the highest frequency of genetic marker detection. Both human and Canada geese contributed to fecal pollution in samples from Parkerson Mill Creek.


The water quality of many of the waterways in our state, and in the nation generally, is deteriorating due to contamination by both point and nonpoint source pollution from human and animal wastes. Each year, millions of cases of infectious disease result from swimming and bathing in contaminated water or consumption of shellfish harvested from fecal polluted waters [1]. Parkerson Mill Creek, located in east Alabama, is rated “impaired” because it fails to meet the water quality criteria required to support its designated use as a fish and wildlife stream. In 2007, the creek was included on the Alabama Department of Environmental Management’s (ADEM) 303(d) list of impaired waters for pathogens from point and nonpoint pollution sources. ( water/303d.cnt). Urban runoff, pet waste, wildlife, and leaky sewer lines have all been thought to contribute to the high level of E. coli concentration (Parkerson Mill Creek Watershed Management Plan, 2010). However, more information is needed to definitively identify the major sources of fecal pollution in order to develop better strategies to protect against the health risks posed by polluted water. Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Entero cocci have been used to indicate fecal pollution and potential human health risks in surface water for some time (USEPA, 1986). However, FIB methods are not specific to any fecal sources and require at least 24 h to obtain results [2,3]. It is also possible for E. coli and Entero cocci to survive and regrow in sediment after being released into the environment [4-6]. Given that the accurate identification of contamination sources is essential for developing cost effective pollution control strategies, increasing interest is now being directed towards the use of library and cultivation independent Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique that target host specific molecular markers. Combining MST methods with end point PCR and qPCR should provide results that reflect the most recent fecal pollution and identify the sources, thus enabling us to develop better pollution control strategies [7-9].
Members of the order Bacteroidales are considered promising fecal indicators with which to monitor microbial water quality due to their host specificity, broad geographic stability, and high abundance in the gastrointestinal tract of warm-blooded animals [10-17]. However, Acteroidales are not present in the feces of every individual member of a species and the concentrations may also vary from one to another [18] suggested that Bacteroides in gulls are scarce and the horizontal transfer of Bacteroides from humans to gulls is common. As a result, the avian markers used in the current study targeted bacteria namely Catellicoccus marimammalium. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate host specific genetic markers associated with dogs, cattle, geese and deer that are likely to affect the local watershed. Environmental water samples collected from Parkerson Mill Creek were used to determine the performance of these markers in the field.

Materials and Methods

Sample Collection

A total of 133 fecal samples and 10 wastewater samples were collected around three cities in east central Alabama, Auburn, Opelika, and Montgomery. The fecal specimens represented nine different animal species (cattle, Canada goose, cat, chicken, deer, dog, duck, goat, and horse) likely to affect the watersheds statewide and were collected with sterile wooden spatulas and placed in sterile polyethylene tubes. Ten raw human sewage samples were collected from nearby wastewater treatment plants in sterile 1-liter bottles. All samples were kept on ice and transported to the lab on the day of collection. Sewage samples were centrifuged at 5000 rpm at 4°C for 15 minutes to concentrate the solid materials 10-fold and fecal samples were stored at -80°C until use. On each of four days during the months of April and May in 2013 (April 12, 19, 26, and May 3rd), environmental water samples were collected from the surface of the water in three different sites in the Parkerson Mill Creek watershed (Figure1), a total of 12 samples were collected in sterile 1-liter plastic bottles. In order to extract the bacterial cells from the water, 500 ml of each sample was vacuum filtered through 0.45μm pore size, 47mm diameter nitrocellulose membrane filters (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA). The membrane filters were then stored at -20°C prior to DNA extraction.
Figure 1: Sampling sites in the Parkerson Mill Creek watershed.

DNA Extraction

All DNA extractions were performed using the Power SoilTM DNA Isolation kit (Mo Bio Laboratories, Inc., Carlsbad, CA). Following the manufacturer’s instructions, 0.25 g of each fecal sample or 300μl of concentrated sewage were used for the DNA extraction. DNA from water samples were extracted from membrane filters that had been cut into small pieces prior to extraction. DNA concentrations were quantified using a NanoDrop ND-1000 UV spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific, Wilmington, USA).

End-Point PCR and qPCR Assays

The primers used in this study are listed in Table 1. End-point PCRs were performed on a TGRADIENT thermal cycler (Whatman Biometra®, Germany). Each 25μl reaction mixture contained 5μl of 5x colorless GoTaq® Flexi buffer, 1.5mm of MgCl2 solution, 0.2 mM of dNTPs, 0.5μm each of the forward and reverse primers for the genetic markers, 0.4 mg/ml of bovine serum albumin (BSA), 0.08 unit/μl GoTaq® DNA polymerase, 2.0μl template DNA, and an appropriate volume of PCR grade water. The thermal cycling parameters for each PCR assay were 94°C for 2 min, followed by 30 cycles of 94°C 60s, 60°C (for the different markers’ annealing temperature please see (Table 1) 45 s, and 72°C 60 s, then 72°C for 7 min. The end-point PCR products were resolved using 1.5% agarose gel electrophorese and viewed under UV light to verify the absence or presence of the target gene. No Template Controls (NTC) containing PCR grade water only and positive controls were included in each instrument run for quality control. Real time PCR assays (All Bac, HF183, CowM3, and CowM2) were performed using the Step One real time PCR instrument (Applied Biosystems, NY). The reaction mixture (15μl) contained 1x SSO AdvancedTM SYBR® Green Super mix (BIO-RAD, CA), 0.7μg/μl BSA, 0.2μm of each primer and 5μl of template DNA. All reactions were performed in duplicate and began with a hold at 95°C for 10 min, followed by 40 cycles of 95°C 15s, 60°C 30 s, and 72°C 30 s. For each set of experiments, a no template control with two replicates was included and a calibration curve with a concentration spanning the range from 10 to 106 gene copies per reaction with two replicates was constructed.
Table 1: Comparison of sensitivities and specificities of the host-associated genetic markers.

Data Analysis

The Amplification Efficiencies (AE) were calculated based on the following equation:
E= 10(-1/slope) – 1
The related statistical analyses were performed using SAS® 9.3 software. ArcGIS 10.2 software for desk top was used to generate a sampling map for the Parkerson Mill Creek watershed.


DNA extracts from a total of 133 fecal samples and 10 wastewater samples were analyzed and the results are shown in Table 1. The CowM3 Bacteroidales marker exhibited 100% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity, so the assay met the 80% benchmark suggested by the USEPA (2005) for both specificity and sensitivity. However, false positive amplification was also observed in four non-target DNA samples (two sewage and two deer samples). The CowM2 marker was present in 9 of 11 cattle fecal samples, resulting in 81.8% sensitivity. The CowM2 marker cross reacted with 42 non-target fecal DNA samples: 34.6% (n=9) Canada goose, 66.7% (n=6) duck, 50% (n=5) sewage, 71.4% (n=15) dog, and 53.8% (n=7) chicken, resulting in 68.2% specificity. Although the GFC marker for Canada goose was detected in 84.6% of the goose fecal samples it also exhibited a 100 % cross-reaction with human fecal samples, so in this case, we chose to use the GFD marker in our primer evaluation study instead. The GFD marker was positive in 84.6% and 27.3% of goose and chicken samples, respectively (Figure 2). The overall specificity and sensitivity of the GFD marker were 97.4% and 84.6%, respectively and although it had some cross reaction with chicken fecal samples (27.3%), it fully distinguished duck samples. Similarly, the elk marker was positive in 100% of the deer fecal samples, though it also cross reacted with the cattle (3/11) and goat (3/3) samples. The overall specificity and sensitivity of the elk marker were 94.9% and 100%, respectively. The dog marker was detected in 12 out of 22 dog fecal samples, 10 out of 10 sewage samples, and 14 out of 14 horse fecal samples, giving the dog marker the lowest values for specificity and sensitivity, at 80.2% and 54.5%, respectively, of the species tested. The All Bac genetic marker targeting the general Bacteroidales was detected in all 12 environmental water samples (Table 2). The human marker was detected in 6 out of 12 and 7 out of 12 water samples in the endpoint and real-time PCR assays, respectively. The Site B samples for all four sampling dates were positive for the human marker, as were the samples collected on April 12 and April 26 at site Q. Similarly, the dog marker was detected in one third (4 out of 12) of the water samples. The marker for Canada goose was detected in 58.3% (7 out of 12) of the water samples, with every sample from site B testing positive for this marker. Two samples from site Q, collected on April 12 and 26, showed positive results for the GFD marker. Neither CowM3 nor elk markers were detected in any of the 12 water samples.
Figure 2: Overall sensitivity and specificity of the different markers tested.
Table 2: Detection of host associated genetic markers in water samples collected from Parkerson Mill Creek.
(The unit for real-time PCR: log10 copies/100ml water).
All of the 12 environmental water samples collected from the three locations were positive for E. coli (Figure 3), with concentrations ranging from 225 CFU/100 ml on April 19 at site B to 5200 CFU/100 ml on April 26 at site I. Both Site B and Site Q had significant high concentrations on April 12, probably due to the rainfall on that day. Site I had the largest geometric mean for E. coli concentration and site B the lowest. All sites exceeded the USEPA’s criterion for recreational water quality (USEPA 2012), which is a geometric mean of 126 CFU/100ml water. Eleven out of the 12 samples also exceeded the USEPA’s single sample maximum for E. coli concentration, which is 410 CFU/100ml. The relationship between the E. coli concentration and the All Bac marker concentration was weak (results didn’t show).
Figure 3: E. coli concentrations at all sampling locations for different dates (CFU/100ml).


The Canada goose specific genetic markers (GFC and GFD) were chosen for evaluation in our study. The other genetic markers used in our study to identify the sources of fecal pollution were based on Bacteroidales and its relatives (Table 1), as the order of Bacteroidales is known to be both abundant and common in mammalian feces. However [19] characterized the fecal microbial community from Canada goose, suggesting that the majority of the genes sequenced were related to Clostridia or Bacilli or, to a lesser degree, Bacteroidetes. Canada goose Bacteroidales specific genetic markers have also been reported elsewhere [20], but these genetic markers were not chosen for the current study because although they are relatively temporally stable, they have low sensitivities. In Green [18] study, the GFC and GFD markers targeted were Catellicoccus marimammalium and Helicobater spp., respectively, with GFC occurring at a higher concentration as more ribosomal operons in Catelli coccus.. However, the GFC marker failed to distinguish between waste pollution from human and goose samples in the present study, so we discontinued our evaluation of the GFC marker on other fecal samples. This result suggests that genetic markers need to be validated across a range of conditions, even when they appear to be highly specific when initially reported. Here, the GFD marker exhibited a 27.3% cross amplification with chicken samples, which is consistent with Green et al.’s research as GFD was originally developed to detect avian fecal samples. We found that it actually had a higher sensitivity (84.6%) on goose samples than the 68% reported in Green et al.’s original study. Therefore, our results for the GFD marker support the sensitivity and specificity of PCR assays for identifying Canada goose-associated fecal pollution in freshwater. CowM2 and CowM3 are both well-developed cattle associated Bacteroidales genetic markers that have been widely used in various MST research studies. Although CowM2 was reported to perform better than CowM3 by Raith et al. [21], a lower sensitivity for CowM2 (50%) has also been reported elsewhere [22]. However, the applicability of those results to other regions is potentially limited due to factors such as host diet, climate and geographic location. In our study, we found a much lower specificity for CowM2 (68.2%) compared with previous studies, some of which have reported values of over 98% [21,23,24]. There are several possible reasons for this discrepancy. First, geographical differences could affect host associated Bacteroidales markers significantly due to differences in the diet and animal digestive tract physiology. Layton [17] found that Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from pig were more closely related to Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from humans than to cattle sources, even though pig and cattle are in the same order of Artiodactyla. Second, the evaluation of the same set of samples may produce different results when examined from a presence absence or quantitative perspective. When there are cross reactions with non-target feces in PCR assays, this is usually at a low level compared with the signal for the target feces and will thus tend to be classified as false positives in end point PCR evaluations but not in real time PCR evaluations [25]. Third, the decay rates for the host-associated markers in the environment may be different due to their size and function [26]. CowM2 targets a 437 bp fragment as encoding an HDIG domain protein involved in energy metabolism and electron transport, while CowM3 targets a 569 bp fragment encoding a sialic acid-specific 9-O-acetylesterase secretory protein involving cell envelope biosynthesis and the degradation of surface polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides [27-28], so the decay rate of these two proteins in environmental water after release from local animal tracts or the abundance variation of the proteins in fecal samples may explain the discrepancy.
The CowM3 marker, on the other hand, had an overall specificity of 97.1 % and 100% sensitivity, which is consistent with previous studies that reported CowM3 to have both a broader target host distribution and greater stability [21,27]. The relative abundance of the host associated genetic markers for CowM3 was 32.6 times greater than the CowM2 marker concentration in the same DNA sample, and this value compares favorably with the results previously reported by Shanks [28]. The amount of target gene in each cell may explain the different target copies detected in the same DNA samples by the different markers [29] pointed out that the CowM2 marker targets a single copy gene involved in energy metabolism. Here we hypothesize that there may be two or more CowM3 target genes involved in cell envelope biosynthesis and the degradation of surface polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides. This result also indicates that not only is CowM3 more specific, but it also has higher sensitivity and a lower detection limit than CowM2 due to its greater abundance. Thus, it will be necessary to validate the specific genetic marker that will be used in each different geographic location because the performance characteristics may change and will thus affect the evaluation results. The dog associated marker DF475F was paired with Bacteroidales specific Bac708R and analyzed in our study against 143 target and non-target DNA samples. Dick [30] who developed this dog marker, found no cross amplifications with human, cat, cow, pig, chicken, or gull sources. However, they also pointed out that the horizontal transfer of fecal bacteria may occur among species in close contact, such as humans and their pets, which suggests the potential for cross reactions with the dog marker in human samples. This is probably why our results showed that this primer set amplified 100% of the sewage DNA representing human sources. Since this primer was the first and only dog specific primer that has yet been identified, the similar results for dog primer in Dick et al.’s research suggests the need for future work in this area to optimize the primer and reaction. Elk primer was found to amplify both the cattle and goat samples, which is consistent with previous studies that reported that deer/ elk primer could not distinguish between Bacteroidales sequences from deer/elk and sheep. Our results suggest that combining the results from CowM2, CowM3, and elk markers should make it possible to distinguish between cattle and deer/elk fecal pollution.

The All Bac genetic marker was designed to target the 16S rRNA genes of Bacteroides spp. and provides a rapid direct measurement of fecal contamination in water due to feces from warm-blooded animal sources [16]. The positive results for the All Bac genetic marker in all the water samples in the present study provides an estimate of the total fecal contamination present in the water samples. The human marker was detected in 6/12 and 7/12 of the water samples using end point and real time PCR assays, respectively. All samples from site B has been detected with HF183 marker, which suggests a potential source of human fecal pollution close to this sampling site. However, there was no CowM3 signal detected by either end-point PCR or real-time PCR. The discrepancy results were observed between end-point and real time PCR assays with CowM2 marker probably due to the cross-reaction of CowM2 marker with non-target feces since the low target concentration was detected. Given the lack of signal detected for the deer/elk marker, the positive signal for CowM2 in the environmental water samples is probably due to the presence of human fecal pollution. The samples that were positive for human signals also amplified the dog marker; these sites were Site B and Site Q on April 12, and Site B on April 26. Since the dog marker was detected in 100% of the human samples, the positive signal for the dog marker in the water samples was probably due to the presence of human fecal pollution. Similar results for the GFD marker are likely to indicate the presence of fecal pollution from Canada goose; during the sampling season, Canada geese were observed around the sampling site, which is consistent with these results. Interestingly, there was no signal detected due to the CowM3 marker in samples collected from site Q, even though this site is close to the beef teaching center at Auburn University and beef cattle were observed on site. That was probably because site Q was located at the upstream of beef teaching center. Future work may be needed to add more sampling sites locate downstream of beef teaching center. This result suggests the capacity of MST to identify major pollution sources from among many possible sources.

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Monday, 18 November 2019

Lupine Publishers | Crack and Leakage Detection on Underground Pipelines Using Acoustic Technique

Lupine Publishers- Environmental and Soil Science Journal


In this study, a method of water leakage detection system was investigated using acoustic emission device, AQUA M 300D. It is used to pinpoint leakage sources for underground pipelines system. The leakage is detected by analyzing the feedback frequency, where leakage area produces higher frequency due to the vibration resulting from a high-pressure liquid that flows through the crevice. The method is successful to detect underground pipelines system leakage with 90% accuracy.


Every year, the government spends high budget on improving water pipeline system by doing maintenance, replacing older water pipeline, and locating leakage area. There are large percentage of water loss due transportation from sources or treatment plants to users. Water loss can be attributed by several causes including leakage, metering error and misuse of public usage [1]. But, water loss due to leakage contributes a larger percentage [2]. There are several methods that can be used to detect water leakage. However, in this study, acoustic emission technique has been chosen as it is the best non-destructive test for underground water pipelines [3,4]. The tests of efficiency and compatibility of the technique in detecting underground water pipelines is explored. This paper will also discuss the failure analysis that commonly occurs, and the factors lead to it. The test is conducted at Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia.


Acoustic Detector AQUA M300 D

Figure 1 shows the AQUA M300 D, a multi-purpose detector designed to allow the user to carry out electro acoustic leak detection on pipe systems carrying water, acoustic leak detection on pipes, and to perform non-destructive pinpoint leak detection on pipes which have previously been flooded with trace gas using the indicative measurement of different hydrogen concentrations.

Experimental Procedure

Acoustic Detector AQUA M300 D is used to record frequency readings at the possible leakage locations. Four locations have been selected, which are pipe located under the road, parking lot, chancellor building, and Block C4.
Figure 1: Acoustic Detector AQUA M300 D.

Results and Discussions

Case Study 1: Leakage from Pipe Located Under the Road

Figure 2 below shows watermark appear on the road surface due to leakage or crack in underground water pipeline. Five readings have been taken to determine the sources of the leakage as shown in Figure 3 The readings are displayed in the (Table 1) From the table, it shows that frequency reading at point 4 is the highest compared to other points. The high frequency is emitted due to occurrence of underground water pipeline leakage or crack. It is resulting from the vibration that is produced by a high-pressure water flow through crevice in the water pipeline. The smart bar indicator will increase when the frequency increases. That indicates that the range of potential leakage pinpoint is narrowed down. The area that does not have water pipe shows low reading because there is no vibration occurred due to water flow.
Figure 2: Watermark Detected on the Road.
Figure 3: Locating Leakage Source of Underground Water Pipeline.
Table 1: Loudness Graph from Watermark on the Road.

Case Study 2: Wet Surface Detected at the Parking Lot

A wet surface had been detected at the parking lot surface near the staffs’ residence as shown in Figure 4 The wet surface is obviously detected during peak hours. This is because during peak hours, water consumptions are high. So, a higher-pressure force flows in the underground pipeline thus forces the water escape through the crevice. The water then is pushed up to the surface through soils and resulting in wet surface appears on the ground. The readings are taken from five pinpoints indicated by blue arrows. The red line shows the underground water pipeline path. The acoustic device has been used to determine the pinpoint of the leakage. The readings taken are plotted in Table 2. The results demonstrate that the leakage is highly possible to occur at point 4 as it shows the highest frequency reading. This is the result of vibration from water escaping from the crack or leakage on the pipe. Uniform reading should be accomplished if the pipeline is in good condition. Point 2 also shows a high frequency reading though not as high as point 4. It can be concluded that the frequency increases as the detector comes close to the source of leakage. The readings at point 1, 3, and 5 are lower compared to point 2 and 4 as they are further from the leakage pinpoint.
Figure 4: Wet Surface Visible at the Parking Lot Area.
Table 2: Frequency Readings from the Leakage at the Parking Lot.

Case Study 3: The Chancellor Building

Watermark is detected at the ceiling of Chancellor Building as shown in Figure 5 below. Therefore, five frequency readings have been taken from five different places near the watermark as shown in Figure 6. Based on the results displayed in Table 3, there are two possible points of leakage which are at point 3 and 4. This is because at point 3 and 4, the device detected highest amplitude of loudness which came from the leakage.
Table 3: Frequency Readings of Leakage from Chancellor Building.
Figure 5: Watermark on the ceiling of Chancellor Building.
Figure 6: Points of Reading.
Figure 7: Watermark at Block C4
Watermark has been spotted at Block C4 as shown in Figure 7 Points of interest are labelled as shown in Figure 8 to determine the source of leakage. The results are displayed in Table 4. Based on the results, the highest frequency reading is obtained at point C followed by point B, A, and D. This is because water leakage occurred at that point causing the pipeline emitted a higher vibration that can be detected by the detector.
Figure 8: Points of Reading.
Table 4: Frequency Readings of Leakage from Block C4.

Crack Propagation Theory

From the results obtained, we can analyse the factor that leads to cracks and leakage. Leakage can occur as the results of high pressure and type of material chosen for pipe. High pressure can cause stress that leads to propagate cracks. Thus, crack propagation theory is studied to determine the suitability on pipe selection. Due to uniformity of loading, an element of the pipe is subjected to normal stress or hoop stress (σ1) and meridian stresses (σ2) in the longitudinal direction. Stresses subjected to pipe wall determined by internal pressure, radius and thickness of the wall and are experienced by every part of the wall pipe.
In order to find maximum stress acting on the pipe wall, hoop stress and meridian stress both need to be calculated. The hoop stress is the stress that occurs at y-plane direction. Meanwhile meridian stress is the force acting on x-plane direction. The pipe sample is shown in Table 5 below.
Table 5: Sample Pipe Parameters.
Calculation of hoop stress: -
σh= (28) (0.08)/0.006
σh=373.3 MPa
Calculation of meridian stress: -
σm= (28) (0.08)/2(0.006)
σm=186.67 MPa
From the calculations, the value of hoop stress is chosen as operating stress. It is chosen because the value of the stress is the maximum stress experienced by the pipe wall. Fracture toughness, Kic, is the resistance of a material from fracture starting from pre-existing cracks. From this equation we can predict the stress state that is closed to the crack tip accurately. Geometric factor is dimensionless and determined by geometry, loading configuration (load acting on pipe), and the ration of crack length to specimen width.
The equation is given as
K=stress intensity factor
Y=geometric factor
σ=operating stress=σmax
a=crack length
The stress intensity factor, K is then compared to plane strain fracture, Kic as stated in the Table 4.4. The Kic is temperature, strain rate, and microstructure of materials dependant. The magnitude of Kic diminishes with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. The value of Kic normally increases it with reduction in grain size as composition and other micro structural variables are maintained constant [5].
Y = in this shape of crack for pipe, 1.12 is taken for the value of geometry factor
a = (crack length)/2
= 0.01/2 =0.005 m
K=1.12(373.3) √ (π (0.005))
K=52.40 MPa√m
From calculation made, stress intensity factors the value, K is greater than plane strain fracture toughness, Kic as shown in Table 6 This means the crack on the pipe is propagating.
Table 6: Plane Strain Fracture Toughness [5].


Cracks and leakage detection in buried water pipeline system at UPNM area was conducted using an acoustic device which is AQUA M 300D. It is found that the pinpoint of cracks and leakage is successfully determined without affecting the pipeline. This study is practical to be used as to detect abnormalities in the underground water pipeline. A theoretical analysis for stress intensity factor also has been investigated. The pipe is modelled as a thin wall cylindrical to calculate the stress acting on the pipe wall. From the data analysed, it can be concluded that the stress intensity factor, K should not be greater than plane fracture toughness, Kic of the pipe material. If the value exceeds, the crack will propagate and lead to leakage. The theoretical calculation gives agreeable result with this study as the K value exceeds the Kic, thus resulting in leakage on the pipeline.

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Friday, 15 November 2019

Lupine Publishers| Waste to Worth - Sludge Containing Calcium Carbonate into Useful Building Materials - an Indian Context

Lupine Publishers- Trends in Civil Engineering and its Architecture



Human activities on earth produce in considerable quantities of wastes more than 2,500 million tons per year, including industrial and agricultural wastes from rural and urban societies. This creates serious problems to the environment, health and also the land filling. Now a day the concrete and bricks are most used man made materials in the world. The Indian construction industry alone consumes approximately 400 million tons of concrete every year and the relative amount of bricks too. Therefore the demand of the concrete, bricks and the required raw materials are very high. This causes the hike in the costs and demand of cement, bricks fine and coarse aggregates. Environmental degradation, high energy consumption and financial constraints has forced various organizations in India and abroad to recommend various qualitative guidelines for generation, treatment, handling, transport, disposal and recycling of non-hazardous and hazardous wastes. On the other side due to exponential growth of population in recent years, there is great demand for construction and thus increasing pressure for use of natural resources causing their acute shortage. There is environmental problem due excessive use of topsoil in brick manufacturing. 

Natural materials being exhaustible in nature, its quantity is declining gradually. Also, cost of extracting good quality of natural material is increasing. Concerned about this, the scientists are looking for alternative materials for construction, and industrial waste product is one such category. If these materials can be suitably utilized in construction, the pollution and disposal problems can be partly reduced. It is now a global concern, to find a social, techno-economic, environmental friendly solution to sustain a cleaner and greener environment. In recent years, the utilization of solid waste is the challenge for the civil and environmental engineers to utilize economic friendly supplementary cementitious materials produced at reasonable cost with the low possible environmental impact. Some of the researchers successfully tested and used industrial wastes such as blast furnace slag, fly ash etc. which offers benefits like potential savings in natural resources and energy, reduction in impact of CO2 emission, and re-use of wastes which otherwise would have been used as landfill and might require a waste management program. The Industrial systems are linear systems taking in raw material and giving out products and wastes. In their effort to minimize negative impact on environment, industries have been traditionally collecting and treating the wastes before disposal. 

This approach i.e. end-of-pipe approach, to wastes has been resulting in the removal of pollutants from one medium and placing in some other medium rather than ending the cycle of wastes, leading to the wasteful spending of resources. Further waste management by this approach is proving to be a burden on the industry. The magnitudes of limitations associated with end-ofpipe approach have recently been forcing the industries to examine this approach critically and adopt an alternative waste handling approach. Waste handling approach is leading to environment friendly technology and processes. It integrates both waste reduction approach and end-of-pipe treatment approach. In India around 1000 million tonnes of solid waste is being generated annually as by-products during industrial, mining, municipal, agricultural, and other processes. Out of this about 300 million tonnes is inorganic waste-nonhazardous and hazardous. Industrialization in India has no doubt helped in economic growth of our country but at the same time it also increases the pollution problem manifold. Environmental conservation is an indisputable industrial responsibility, and market competitiveness has demanded proactive and concrete actions from industry to preserve the environment. This demand promotes the minimisation of environmental impacts through the use of clean technologies that minimise waste generation and maximise reuse. The use of such technologies leads to the utilisation of wastes, energy savings and other gains. 

Lot of studies have been done for utilisation of this waste specific to the properties of the waste as building materials. To build sustainable environment and to meet the demand of construction material it is very important to find the link between waste generating industries and construction industry. Our toothpaste industry sector is presently facing the problems of safe disposal of solid waste. The very feature of toothpaste industry waste is that it contains CaCo3 in abundance; attracts the attentions of Civil Engineers. The author has developed a technology for utilizing waste from toothpaste industry as an alternative to virgin materials and building products. It is very much possible to manufacture good quality of clay bricks, concrete and hard grade bitumen by blending some amount of this sludge, thus solving issue of waste disposal and producing a low cost environmental friendly building material.

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