** Lupine Publishers| Journal of Material Science**

## Abstract

Companies such as Intel as a pioneer in chip design for computing are pushing the edge of computing from its present Classical Computing generation to the next generation of Quantum Computing. Along the side of Intel corporation, companies such as IBM, Microsoft, and Google are also playing in this domain. The race is on to build the world’s first meaningful quantum computer-one that can deliver the technology’s long-promised ability to help scientists do things like develop miraculous new materials, encrypt data with near-perfect security and accurately predict how Earth’s climate will change. Such a machine is likely more than a decade away, but IBM, Microsoft, Google, Intel, and other tech heavyweights breathlessly tout each tiny, incremental step along the way. Most of these milestones involve packing more quantum bits, or qubits-the basic unit of information in a quantum computer-onto a processor chip ever. But the path to quantum computing involves far more than wrangling subatomic particles. Such computing capabilities are opening a new area into dealing with the massive sheer volume of structured and unstructured data in the form of Big Data, is an excellent augmentation to Artificial Intelligence (AI) and would allow it to thrive to its next generation of Super Artificial Intelligence (SAI) in the near-term time frame.

**Keywords:** Quantum Computing and Computer, Classical Computing and Computer, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning,
Deep Learning, Fuzzy Logic, Resilience System, Forecasting and Related Paradigm, Big Data, Commercial and Urban Demand for
Electricity

## Introduction

Quantum Computing (QC) is designed and structured around the usage of Quantum Mechanical (QM) concepts and phenomena such as superposition and entanglement to perform computation. Computers that perform quantum computation are known as Quantum Computers[1-5].Note that the superposition from a quantum point of view is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics. The Quantum Superposition (QS) states that, much like waves in Classical Mechanics (CM) or Classical Physics (CP), any two or more quantum states can be added together (“superposed”), and the result will be another valid quantum state; and conversely, that every quantum state can be represented as a sum of two or more other distinct countries.Mathematically, it refers to a property of solutions to the both SchrÃ¶dinger Time-Dependent and Time-Independent Wave Equations; since the SchrÃ¶dinger equation is linear, any linear combination of solutions will also be a solution.An example of a physically observable manifestation of the wave nature of quantum systems is the interference peaks from an electron beam in a double-slit experiment, as illustrated in (Figure 1).The pattern is very similar to the one obtained by the diffraction of classical waves. [6]. Quantum computers are believed to be able to solve some computational issues, such as integer factorization, which underlies RSA encryption [7], significantly faster than classical computers. The study of quantum computing is a subfield of quantum information science.

Historically, Classical Computer (CC) technology, as we know them from the past few decades to present, has involved a sequence of changes from one type of physical realization to another, and they have been evolved from main-frame of the old generation to generation of macro-computer. Now, these days, pretty much everyone owns a minicomputer in the form of a laptop, and you find these generations of computers in everyone’s house as part of their household. These mini-computers, Cemeterial Processing Units (CPUs), are based on transistors that are architected around Positive-Negative-Positive (PNP) junction.From gear to relays to valves to transistors to integrated circuits and so on we need automation and consequently augmentation of computer of some sort Today’s advanced lithographic techniques at below sub-micron innovative structure augmenting techniques such as Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD), Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), and Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) can create chips with a feature only a fraction of micron wide. Fabricator and manufacturer these chips are pushing them to yield even smaller parts and inevitably reach a point where logic gates are so small that they are made out of only a handful of atoms size, as it is depicted in (Figure 2).

It worth mentioning that the size of the chip going way beyond
sub-micron technology is limited by the wavelength of the light that
is used in the lithographic technique.

On the atomic scale, matter obeys the rules of Quantum
Mechanics (QM), which are quite different from Classical Mechanics
(CM) or Physics Rules that determine the properties of conventional
logic gates. Thus, if computers are to become smaller in the future,
new, quantum technology must replace or supplement what we
have new as a traditional way of computing.The point is, however,
that quantum technology can offer much more than cramming
more and more bits onto silicon CPU chip and multiplying the
clock-speed of these traditional microprocessors. It can support an
entirely new kind of computation with qualitatively new algorithms
based on quantum principles! In a nutshell, in Quantum Computing,
we deal with Qubits, while in Classical Computing, we deal with bits
of information; thus, we need to understand “What Are Qubits?”
and how it is defined, which we have presented this matter further
down.Next generation of tomorrow’s computer is working based on
where “Quantum Bits Compressed for the First Time.” The physicist
has now shown how to encode three quantum bits, the kind of
data that might be used in this new generation of computer, by just
using two photons.Of course, a quantum computer is more than
just its processor. These next-generation systems will also need
new algorithms, software, interconnects, and several other yet-tobe-
invented technologies specifically designed to take advantage
of the system’s tremendous processing power-as well as allow the
computer’s results to be shared or stored.

Intel introduced a 49-qubit processor code-named “Tangle Lake.” A few years ago, the company created a virtual-testing environment for quantum-computing software; it leverages the powerful “Stampede” supercomputer at The University of Texas at Austin to simulate up to a 42-qubit processor. To understand how to write software for quantum computers, however, they will need to be able to simulate hundreds or even thousands of qubits.Note that: Stampede was one of the most potent and significant supercomputers in the U.S. for open science research. Able to perform nearly ten quadrillion operations per second, Stampede offered opportunities for computational science and technology, ranging from highly parallel algorithms, highthroughput computing, scalable visualization, and next-generation programming languages, as illustrated in (Figure3) here. [8]This Dell PowerEdge cluster equipped with Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors pushed the envelope of computational capabilities, enabling breakthroughs never before imagined. Stampede was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through award ACI-1134872.

Stampede was upgraded in 2016 with additional compute nodes built around the second generation of the Intel Xeon Phi many-core, x86 architecture, known as Knights Landing. The new Xeon Phi’s function as the primary processors in the new system. The upgrade ranked #116 on the June 2016 Top 500 and was the only KNL system on the list.Note that: Knights Landing (KNL) is 2nd Generation of Intel® Xeon Phi™ Processor

## What Are Qubits?

A qubit can represent a 0 and 1 at the same time, a uniquely quantum phenomenon known in physics as a superposition. This lets qubits conduct vast numbers of calculations at once, massively increasing computing speed and capacity. But there are different types of qubits, and not all are created equal. In a programmable silicon quantum chip, for example, whether a bit is 1 or a 0 depends on the direction its electron is spinning. Yet all qubits are notoriously fragile, with some requiring temperatures of about 20 millikelvins-250 times colder than deep space-to remain stable. From a physical point of view, a bit is a physical system, which can be prepared in one of the two different states representing two logical values: based on No or Yes, False or True, or simply 0 or 1.Quantum bits, called qubits, are implemented using quantum mechanical two-state systems, as we stated above. These are not confined to their two basic states but can also exist in superposition. This means that the qubit is both in state 0 and state 1, as illustrated in (Figure 4).Any classical register composed of three bits can store in a given moment, only one out of eight different numbers, as illustrated in (Figure 5). A quantum register composed of three qubits can store in a given momentum of time all eight numbers in a quantum superposition, again as illustrated in (Figure5).Once the register is prepared in a superposition of different numbers, one would be able to perform operations on all of them, as demonstrated in (Figure 6)here. Thus, quantum computers can perform many different calculations in parallel. In other words, a system with N qubits can perform 2N calculations at once!

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