Thursday 21 March 2019

Journal of Pediatrics-Lupine Publishers

Apnea in Neonates - Concepts and Controversies by Edwin Dias in Progressing Aspects in Pediatrics and Neonatology in Lupine Publishers

Apnoea of prematurity (AOP) is a common problem affecting premature infants. Apnoea is defined as cessation of breathing for more than 20 seconds or for lesser duration when associated with bradycardia and desaturation. The most likely and accepted pathogenesis is the “physiologic” immaturity of respiratory control in the neonates. The physiological immaturities include altered ventilatory responses to hypoxia, hypercapnia, and altered sleep states. Other hypotheses include gastroesophageal reflux and anaemia which are still controversial. Three types have been identified namely obstructive, central and mixed types of apnoea. Management options include the use of supplemental oxygen, position chages and drug therapy with methyxanthines. Other supportive therapies include kangaroo care, packed cell transfusions. The long term neurodevelopmental consequences of AOP and its treatment still needs to be studied further.

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